- Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt
The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period.
Known rulers, in the
History of Egypt, for the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows:
The Fifteenth Dynasty of
Egyptwas the first HyksosDynasty, ruling from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin Kinglist indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. [ [http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/turin_kinglist/1014_1021.html Turin Kinglist] Accessed July 26, 1006] (line X.21 of the cited web link clearly provides this summary for the dynasty: "6 kings functioning 100+X years.") The surviving traces on the X figure appears to give the figure 8 which suggests that the summation should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years.
Number of king Apepi's
Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily due to the fact there are two known prenomens for this king: Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist
Kim Ryholtmaintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Periodthat these prenomens all refer to one man: Apepi Iwho ruled Egypt for 40+X years. [Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." by Museum Tuscalanum Press. 1997. p.125] This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. [ [http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/2interkings/kings2intermediateryholt.html Kings of the Second Intermediate Period] University College London; scroll down to the 15th dynasty] Apophis likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. This scenario is not unprecedented since later kings including the famous Ramesses IIand Seti IIare known to have used two different prenomens in their own reign.
* Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." by Museum Tuscalanum Press (ISBN 87-7289-421-0)
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