- William Kent
William Kent (born in
Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architectand furnituredesigner of the early 18th century.
Kent's career began as a sign and coach painter who was encouraged to study art, design and architecture by his employer. A group of Yorkshire gentlemen sent Kent for a period of study in
Rome, where he met Thomas Coke, later 1st Earl of Leicester, with whom he toured Northern Italy in the summer of 1714 (a tour that led Kent to an appreciation of the architectural style of Andrea Palladio's palaces in Vicenza), and Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, who took him back to England in 1719. As a painter, he displaced Sir James Thornhillin decorating the new state rooms at Kensington Palace, London; for Burlington, he decorated Chiswick Houseand Burlington House.
He is better remembered as the central architect of the revived
Palladianstyle in England. Burlington gave him the task of editing "The Designs of Inigo Jones..." with some additional designs in the Palladian/Jonesian taste by Burlington and Kent, which appeared in 1727. As he rose through the royal architectural establishment, the Board of Works, Kent applied this style to several public buildings in London, for which Burlington's patronage secured him the commissions: the Royal Mewsat Charing Cross(1731–33, demolished in 1830), the Treasury buildings in Whitehall(1733–37), the Horse Guards building in Whitehall, (designed shortly before his death and built 1750–1759). These neo-antique buildings were inspired as much by the architecture of Raphael and Giulio Romanoas by Palladio.
In country house building, major commissions for Kent were designing the interiors of
Houghton Hall(c.1725–35), recently built by Colen Campbellfor Sir Robert Walpole, but at Holkham Hallthe most complete embodiment of Palladian ideals is still to be found; there Kent collaborated with Thomas Coke, the other "architect earl", and had for an assistant Matthew Brettingham, whose own architecture would carry Palladian ideals into the next generation. A theatrically Baroque staircase and parade rooms in London, at 44 Berkeley Square, are also notable. Kent's domed pavilions were erected at Badminton Houseand at Euston Hall.
Kent could provide sympathetic Gothic designs, free of serious antiquarian tendencies, when the context called; he worked on the Gothic screens in
Westminster Halland Gloucester Cathedral.
As a landscape designer, Kent was one of the originators of the
English landscape garden, a style of 'natural' gardening that revolutionised the laying out of gardens and estates. His projects included Stowe, Buckinghamshire, from about 1730 onwards, designs for Alexander Pope's villa garden at Twickenham, for Queen Caroline at Richmond and notably at Rousham House, Oxfordshire, where he created a sequence of Arcadian set-pieces punctuated with temples, cascades, grottoes, Palladian bridges and exedra, opening the field for the larger scale achievements of Capability Brownin the following generation. His all-but-lost gardens at Claremont, Surrey, have recently been restored. It is often said that he was not above planting dead trees to create the mood he required.
Kent's only real downfall was said to be his lack of horticultural knowledge and technical skill (which people like
Charles Bridgemanpossessed - whose impact on Kent is often underestimated), but his naturalistic style of design was his major contribution to the history of landscape design. Claremont, Stowe, and Rousham are places where their joint efforts can be viewed. Stowe and Rousham are Kent's most famous works. At the latter, Kent elaborated on Bridgeman's 1720s design for the property, adding walls and arches to catch the viewer's eye. At Stowe, Kent used his Italian experience, particularly with the Palladian Bridge. At both sites Kent incorporated his naturalistic approach.
His stately furniture designs complemented his interiors: he designed furnishings for
Hampton Court Palace(1732), for Devonshire Housein London, and at Rousham. The royal barge he designed for Frederick, Prince of Walescan still be seen at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
In his own age, Kent's fame and popularity were so great that he was employed to give designs for all things, even for ladies' birthday dresses, of which he could know nothing and which he decorated with the five
classical orders of architecture. These and other absurdities drew upon him the satire of William Hogarthwho, in October 1725, produced a "Burlesque on Kent's Altarpiece at St. Clement Danes".
Horace Walpole, Kent "was a painter, an architect, and the father of modern gardening. In the first character he was below mediocrity; in the second, he was a restorer of the science; in the last, an original, and the inventor of an art that realizes painting and improves nature. Mahomet imagined an elysium, Kent created many."
* [http://www.gardenvisit.com/b/kent.htm Short biography on gardenvisit.com]
* [http://www.britainexpress.com/History/bio/kent.htm Short biography on britainexpress.com]
* [http://www.furniturestyles.net/european/english/william-kent.html Design examples on furniturestyles.net]
* Hunt, John Dixon, "Garden and Grove: Italian Renaissance Garden and the English Imagination, 1600-1750", London, 1986, and pbk. London and Philadelphia, 1996.
* Hunt, J.D. (1987) William Kent, Landscape garden designer: An Assessment and Catalogue of his designs (London, A. Zwemmer Ltd).
* Jourdain, M. (1948) The Work of William Kent: Artist, Painter, Designer and Landscape Gardener (London, Country Life Limited).
* Mowl, T. (2006) William Kent: Architect, Designer, Opportunist (London, Jonathan Cape).
* Newton, N. (1971). "Design of the land". Cambridge: Belknap Press of
Harvard University Press.
* Ross, David (2000). William Kent. Britain Express, 1-2. Retrieved September 26, 2004, from http://www.britainexpress.com/History/bio/kent.htm
* Rogers, E. (2001). "Landscape design a cultural and architectural history". New York:
Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
* Wilson, M.I. (1984) William Kent: Architect, Designer, Painter, Gardener, 1685-1748 (London, Boston, Melbourne and Henley, Routledge & Kegan Paul).
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William Kent — William Kent. William Kent (1685 1748) fue un arquitecto, interiorista y paisajista inglés, y uno de los creadores del jardín inglés, de estilo orgánico y natural, en contraposición al hasta entonces imperante jardín francés, caracterizado por … Wikipedia Español
William Kent — ist der Name folgender Personen: William Kent (Architekt) (1685 1748), britischer Architekt William Kent (Kapitän), britischer Kapitain Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begrif … Deutsch Wikipedia
William Kent — (1685 1748) fut un architecte et paysagiste anglais. Né à Bridlington dans le Yorkshire, il est regardé comme l inventeur des jardins anglais. Il a dessiné les jardins de : Stowe House dans le Buckinghamshire (1730) la villa d Alexander Pope … Wikipédia en Français
William Kent — [William Kent] (c. 1685–1748) an English painter and ↑architect who also designed gardens and the insides of houses. He studied in Rome and helped to introduce ↑Palladianism (= an Italian style of architecture) to Brit … Useful english dictionary
William Kent — ➡ Kent (V) * * * … Universalium
William Kent (Architekt) — William Kent William Kent (* 1685 in Bridlington, Yorkshire; † 12. April 1748 in London) war ein ausgebildeter Landschaftsmaler, führender englischer Architekt, Gartengestalter und Innenarchitekt des 18. Jahrhunderts. Er gilt als Wegbereiter des… … Deutsch Wikipedia
William Kent Krueger — (* 16. November 1950 in Torrington, Wyoming) ist ein mehrfach ausgezeichneter US amerikanischer Kriminalschriftsteller. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Auszeichnungen 3 Werke … Deutsch Wikipedia
William Kent (U.S. Congressman) — William Kent (March 29, 1864 ndash;March 13, 1928) was an American who served as a United States Congressman representing the State of California. He spearheaded the movement to create the Muir Woods National Monument by donating land to the… … Wikipedia
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William Kent (Irish politician) — William Rice Kent was an Irish politician.He was first elected as a Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála (TD) for the Cork East constituency in the September 1927 general election. He lost his seat in the 1932 general election. He was elected as a National… … Wikipedia