- Pavlo Skoropadskyi
Infobox_President | name=Pavlo Skoropadskyi
Hetman of Ukraine
May 3, 1873
April 26, 1945
Pavlo Skoropadskyi (or more properly transliterated into Pavlo Skoropads'kyj _uk. Павло Скоропадський, Pavlo Skoropadsky; _ru. Павел Петрович Скоропадский, Pavel Skoropadski)
May 3, 1873, Wiesbaden, Germany— April 26, 1945, Metten monastery clinic, Bavaria, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician, earlier an aristocrat and decorated Russian Imperial army general. Skoropadsky became a conservative leader in Ukraine's unsuccessful struggle for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917.
April 29, 1918, coup d'etatthat toppled the Ukrainian People's Republic, Skoropadsky was declared Hetman(leader) of the government of a "Ukrainian State" ("Ukrayinska Derzhava"). His government, and his period in power, are both referred to as "the Hetmanate."
Ukrainian People's Republichad been abolished by an elected All-Ukrainian Congress of farmers. In reality the coup d'etat had been sanctioned by the German military, which in the spring of 1918 had occupied Kievand other parts of Ukraine. This was in accordance with an agreement with the Ukrainian Republican government, intent on repelling invasion by Russian Bolshevik forces. In return, the Republican government pledged food stocks, which were to be expropriated from the peasants. The German military command was dissatisfied with the inefficiency and incompetence of the Republican government, which repeatedly failed to deliver the supplies on time. It may be that the Republican government never actually meant to enforce the widely unpopular agreement.
Skoropadsky was accused by other Ukrainian politicians of being a German puppet supported by large local landowners. He was also considered too pro-Russian and dictatorial: he formed a new cabinet comprising mostly Russian monarchists, committed to federation with a future non-Bolshevik Russia.
Despite these criticisms, by contrast with the earlier socialist "Rada", his government was given credit for having created an effective administrative organization, established diplomatic ties with many countries, concluded a peace treaty with Soviet Russia, and built many schools and universities.
In November 1918 Skoropadsky was removed from power in an uprising led by
Symon Petliura. The uprising nominally restored the Ukrainian People's Republic, but power was vested in a "Directoria", an unelected body of five directors headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko.
Though ousted from office, Skoropadsky never abdicated his title of "hetman". While living in Germany he maintained close contacts with German government and army officials which sprang from personal friendships reaching as far back as his military-college days. During
World War II, Skoropadsky fled before advancing Soviet forces along with the retreating German army. He died in Germany after being wounded by an Allied bombing.
His movement continued into the early 1980s, influencing a Ukrainian monarchist program based on the Cossack State model. It ended gradually with the aging of eastern-Ukrainian emigré communities. Skoropadsky's daughter, Olena Ott-Skoropadska resides in Switzerland, has visited Ukraine several times and has been honored for her historical writings.
* [http://www.ukrop.com/ua/encyclopaedia/100names/6098.html Biography]
* [http://www.eastview.com/xq/ASP/sku=RC760737/The/Secret/Police/of/Hetman/SkoropadskyPapers/of/the/Provisional/Government/of/Ukraine/Ukranian/Russian/Ukraine//qx/research-collections/product_view.asp The Secret Police of Hetman Skoropadsky] Research collection in microform.
* [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/S/K/SkoropadskyPavlo.htm Biography] from "Encyclopedia of Ukraine", vol. 4 (1993)
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/jan/26.htm V. I. Lenin "Everybody On Food And Transport Work!"] Endnote: "In November-December 1918 the Ukrainian workers and peasants rose up against the German invaders and their stooge, Hetman Skeropadsky. On December 14 Skoropadsky fled from Kiev."
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