- Hierarchical control system
A Hierarchical control system is a form of
Control Systemin which a set of devices and governing software is arranged in a hierarchicaltree. When the links in the tree are implemented by a computer network, then that hierarchical control system is also a form of Networked control system.
A human-built system with complex behavior is often organized as a hierarchy. For example a
command hierarchyhas among its notable features the organizational chartof superiors, subordinates, and lines of organizational communication. Hierarchical control systems are organized similarly to divide the decision making responsibility.
Each element of the hierarchy is a linked
nodein the tree. Commands, tasks and goals to be achieved flow down the tree from superior nodes to subordinate nodes, whereas sensations and command results flow up the tree from subordinate to superior nodes. Nodes may also exchange messages with their siblings. The two distinguishing features of a hierarchical control system are related to its layers. [Findeisen, page 9]
* Each higher layer of the tree operates with a longer interval of planning and execution time than its immediately lower layer.
* The lower layers have local tasks, goals, and sensations, and their activities are planned and coordinated by higher layers which do not generally override their decisions. The layers form a
hybrid intelligent systemin which the lowest, reactive layers are sub-symbolic. The higher layers, having relaxed time constraints, are capable of reasoning from an abstract world model and performing planning. A hierarchical task networkis a good fit for planning in a hierarchical control system.
Besides artificial systems, an animal's control systems are proposed to be organized as a hierarchy. In
perceptual control theory, which postulates that an organism's behavior is a means of controlling its perceptions, the organism's control systems are suggested to be organized in a hierarchical pattern as their perceptions are constructed so.
Manufacturing, robotics and vehicles
robotic paradigmsis the hierarchical paradigm in which a robot operates in a top-down fashion, heavy on planning, especially motion planning. Computer-aided production engineeringhas been a research focus at NISTsince the 1980's. Its Automated Manufacturing Research Facility was used to develop a five layer production control model. In the early 1990's DARPAsponsored research to develop distributed (i.e. networked) intelligent control systems for applications such as military command and control systems. NIST built on earlier research to develop its Real-Time Control System(RCS) which is a generic hierarchical control system that has been used to operate a manufacturing cell, a robot crane, and an automated vehicle.
In November 2007,
DARPAheld the Urban Challenge. The winning entry, Tartan Racing [ [http://www.darpa.mil/GRANDCHALLENGE/Teams/TartanRacing.asp] Tartan Racing team description] employed a hierarchical control system, with layered mission planning, motion planning, behavior generation, perception, world modelling, and mechatronics. [Urmson, C. et al., [http://www.darpa.mil/GRANDCHALLENGE/TechPapers/Tartan_Racing.pdf Tartan Racing: A Multi-Modal Approach to the DARPA Urban Challenge] 2007, page 4]
Subsumption architectureis a methodology for developing artificial intelligencethat is heavily associated with behavior based robotics. This architecture is a way of decomposing complicated intelligent behavior into many "simple" behavior modules, which are in turn organized into layers. Each layer implements a particular goal of the software agent(i.e. system as a whole), and higher layers are increasingly more abstract. Each layer's goal subsumes that of the underlying layers, e.g. the decision to move forward by the eat-food layer takes into account the decision of the lowest obstacle-avoidance layer. Behavior need not be planned by a superior layer, rather behaviors may be triggered by sensory inputs and so are only active under circumstances where they might be appropriate. [Brooks, R. A. [http://www.ece.osu.edu/~fasiha/Brooks_Planning.html "Planning is just a way of avoiding figuring out what to do next"] , Technical report, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 1987] . Reinforcement learninghas been used to acquire behavior in a hierarchical control system in which each node can learn to improve its behavior with experience. [Takahashi, Y. , and Asada, M., [http://citeseer.comp.nus.edu.sg/rd/0%2C465821%2C1%2C0.25%2CDownload/http://citeseer.comp.nus.edu.sg/cache/papers/cs/24389/http:zSzzSzwww.er.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jpzSzpaperszSz1999zSzTakahashi99d.pdf/behavior-acquisition-by-multi.pdf Behavior Acquisition by Multi-Layered Reinforcement Learning.] In Proceeding of the 1999 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pages 716-721] James Albus, while at NIST, developed a theory for intelligent system design named the Reference Model Architecture (RMA) [Albus, J. S. [http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/documents/albus/Ref_Model_Arch345.pdf A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Systems Design.] In Antsaklis, P.J., Passino, K.M. (Eds.) (1993) An Introduction to Intelligent and Autonomous Control. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993, Chapter 2, pp27-56. ISBN 0-7923-9267-1] , which is a hierarchical control system inspired by RCS. Albus defines each node to contain these components.
* "Behavior generation" is responsible for executing tasks received from the superior, parent node. It also plans for, and issues tasks to, the subordinate nodes.
* "Sensory perception" is responsible for receiving sensations from the subordinate nodes, then grouping, filtering, and otherwise processing them into higher level abstractions that update the local state and which form sensations that are sent to the superior node.
* "Value judgment" is responsible for evaluating the updated situation and evaluating alternative plans.
* "World Model" is the local state that provides a model for the controlled system, controlled process, or environment at the
abstraction levelof the subordinate nodes. At its lowest levels, the RMA can be implemented as a subsumption architecture, in which the world model is mapped directly to the controlled process or real world, avoiding the need for a mathematical abstraction, and in which time-constrained reactive planningcan be implemented as a finite state machine. Higher levels of the RMA however, may have sophisticated mathematical world models and behavior implemented by automated planning and scheduling. Planning is required when certain behaviors cannot be triggered by current sensations, but rather by predicted or anticipated sensations, especially those that come about as result of the node's actions. [Meystel, A. M., Albus, J.S., Intelligent Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002, pp 30-31]
* cite conference
author = Albus, J.S.
year = 1996
title = The Engineering of Mind
booktitle = From Animals to Animats 4: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior
publisher = MIT Press
url = http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=V3pksEEKxUkC&oi=fnd&pg=PA23&dq=The+engineering+of+mind&ots=sFjNGvuR8m&sig=Hrvf8uN732vQVBhgJjrohsUtfqI
* cite conference
author = Albus, J.S.
year = 2000
title = 4-D/RCS reference model architecture for unmanned ground vehicles
booktitle = Robotics and Automation, 2000. Proceedings. ICRA'00. IEEE International Conference on
volume = 4
url = http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=845165
* cite book
author = Findeisen, W.
coauthors = Others,
year = 1980
title = Control and coordination in hierarchical systems
publisher = Chichester [Eng.] ; New York: J. Wiley
* cite journal
author = Hayes-roth, F.
coauthors = Erman, L.; Terry, A.
year = 1992
title = Distributed intelligent control and management(DICAM) applications and support for semi-automated development
journal = NASA. Ames Research Center, Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Workshop on Automating Software Design. Theme: Domain Specific Software Design p 66-70 (SEE N 93-17499 05-61)
url = http://www.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=TRD&recid=N9317513AH
accessdate = 2008-05-11
* cite journal
author = Jones, A.T.
coauthors = McLean, C.R.
year = 1986
title = A Proposed Hierarchical Control Model for Automated Manufacturing Systems
journal = Journal of Manufacturing Systems
volume = 5
issue = 1
pages = 15-25
url = http://www.nist.gov/msidlibrary/summary/8606.html
accessdate = 2008-05-11
* [http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/projects/rcslib/ The RCS (Realtime Control System) Library]
* [http://texai.org Texai] An open source project to create artificial intelligence using an Albus hierarchical control system
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