Antipope Clement VII


Antipope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII.

Robert of Geneva (1342–16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy as (Anti-)Pope Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first Avignon antipope of the Western Schism.

Biography

He was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva, and was born in Geneva, in what is now Switzerland, in 1342. Appointed Protonotary Apostolic in 1359, he became Bishop of Thérouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368, and a cardinal on 30 May 1371.

In 1377, while serving as papal legate in upper Italy (1376-78), in order to put down a rebellion in the Papal States, known as the War of the Eight Saints, he personally commanded troops lent to the papacy by the condottiere John Hawkwood to reduce the small city of Cesena in the territory of Forlì, which resisted being added to the Patrimony of Peter for the second time in a generation; there he allegedly authorized the massacre of 4,000 civilians, an atrocity even by the rules of war at the time, which earned him the nickname butcher - or executioner of Cesena.

Elected pope at Fondi on 20 September 1378 by the French cardinals in opposition to Urban VI, he was the first antipope of the Western Schism, the second of the two periods sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, which lasted until 1417. France, Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal, Savoy, and some minor German states acknowledged his authority. Unable to maintain himself in Italy, he took up his residence at Avignon in the southern French Comtat Venaissin, where he became dependent on the French court. He created excellent cardinals but donated the larger part of the Pontifical States to Louis II of Anjou, resorted to simony and extortion to meet the financial needs of his court, and seems never to have sincerely desired the termination of the schism.

He died at Avignon on 16 September 1394.

Eventually it was determined that he would be recorded as an antipope rather than as a pope. Uncertainty over who the legitimate pope might be during the time of the Western Schism gave rise to the legal theory called Conciliarism, which claimed that a general council of the church was superior to the pope and could therefore judge between rival claimants.

References

Popes of the Western Schism

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Clement (VII) — ▪ antipope original name  Robert of Geneva , French  Robert de Genève  born 1342, Geneva [Switzerland] died Sept. 16, 1394, Avignon, Provence [France]       first antipope (1378–94) of the Western (Western Schism) (Great) Schism that troubled the …   Universalium

  • Antipope Clement III — This article is about the Antipope Clement III; see here for Pope Clement III. Infobox Antipope honorific prefix = name = Clement III honorific suffix = title = caption = Antipope Clement III. (middle) with Henry IV. (left), image froms Codex… …   Wikipedia

  • Clement VII —    1) (1478–1534)    Pope.    Clement VII was born Giulio de’ Medici and he was a cousin of Pope Leo x. He was appointed Archbishop of Florence and made a Cardinal in 1513 and he was highly influential during his cousin’s Pontificate. In 1523 he… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Pope Clement VII — For the antipope (1378–1394), see Antipope Clement VII. Clement VII Portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo, c. 1531 Metropolis Florence …   Wikipedia

  • Antipope — For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who opposes a legitimately elected or sitting Pope and makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope,[1] the Bishop of Rome and leader of… …   Wikipedia

  • Antipope — • A false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Antipope     Antipope      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • CLEMENT° — CLEMENT°, the name of 14 popes and three antipopes. The antipope CLEMENT III, who claimed the apostolic throne between 1080 and 1100, protested strongly when Emperor Henry IV permitted Jews who had become converted to Christianity during the anti …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Antipope Alexander V — Alexander V Antipope Alexander V (1409–1410) Papacy began June 26, 1409 Papacy ended May 3, 1410 …   Wikipedia

  • Antipope Gregory VIII — Gregory VIII (died 1137), born Mauritius Burdinus (Maurice Bourdin), was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121. He was born in the Limousin, part of Aquitaine, Occitania, France. He was educated at Cluny, at Limoges, and in Castile,… …   Wikipedia

  • Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164) — This article is about the former Cardinal Octavianus, antipope from 1159 to 1164. For the previous reigning antipope, see Antipope Victor IV (1138). Victor IV (died 20 April 1164), born Octavian or Octavianus: Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.