Old Turkic


Old Turkic

language
name=Old Turkic/Old Uyghur
region=Central Asia
extinct=evolved into Uyghur by the 13th century
script=Orkhon, Brahmi, Aramaic-derived, Arabic
familycolor=Altaic
fam2=Turkic
fam3=Southeastern Turkic (Uyghuric)
iso3=otk

Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested Turkic language, found in inscriptions by the Göktürks and the Uyghurs in ca. the 7th to 13th centuries AD. It cannot be considered a direct predecessor of the Uyghur language, but elements of Old Turkic can be traced in Middle Turkic such as Chagatai. Old Turkic is now considered as belonging to the "Southeastern Common Turkic" branch of Turkic languages.

Differences between Old Turkic and Ottoman Turkish

ources

Sources of Old Turkic are divided into three corpora:
*the 7th to 10th century Orkhon inscriptions in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin (Orkhon Turkic, or Old Turkic proper)
*9th to 13th century Uyghur manuscripts from Xinjiang (Old Uyghur), in various scripts including Brahmi, the Manichaean, Syriac and Uyghur alphabets, treating religious (Buddhist, Manichaean and Nestorian), legal, literary, folkloric and astrologic material as well as personal correspondence.
*11th century Qarakhanid manuscripts, mostly written in Arabic script (Qarakhanid Turkic). The Qarakhanid corpus includes a 6,500 couplet poem, "Qutaδγu bilig" "Wisdom that brings good fortune", an Arabic-Turkic dictionary and Mahmud al-Kashgari's "Compendium of the Turkic dialects".

Phonology

Old Turkic has nine vowel qualities—"a, e, ė, i, ï, o, ö, u, ü"—distinct only in the first syllable of a word, collapsed into four classes elsewhere—"a, e, ï, i".

The consonantal system distinguishes between unvoiced, voiced (with fricative variants) and nasal::labial: "p, v (β), m";:dental: "t, d (δ), n";:palatal: "č, y, ń";:velar: "k (q, χ), g (γ), ŋ";:sibilant: "s, š, z";:liquid: "r, l".

ee also

*Old Turkic script
*Middle Turkic
*Proto-Turkic

References

*M. Erdal, "Old Turkic", in: The Turkic Languages, eds. L. Johanson & E.A. Csato, Routledge, London (1998), ISBN 0415082005
*M. Erdal, "A Grammar of Old Turkic", Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 8 Uralic & Central Asia, Brill, Leiden (2004), ISBN 9004102949.
*M. Erdal, "Old Turkic word formation: A functional approach to the lexicon", Turcologica, Harassowitz (1991), ISBN 3447030844.
*Talat Tekin, "A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic", Uralic and Altaic Series Vol. 69, Indiana University Publications, Mouton and Co. (1968). (review: Gerard Clauson, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1969); RoutledgeCurzon (1997), ISBN 0700708693.
*L. Johanson, "A History of Turkic", in: The Turkic Languages, eds. L. Johanson & E.A. Csato, Routledge, London (1998), ISBN 0415082005

External links

* [http://www.ats.lmu.de/lingtools/milbdb/files/index.php?file=turkicold.pdf Old Turkic (8th century) funerary inscription] (W. Schulze)
* [http://vatec2.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/ VATEC] , pre-Islamic Old Turkic electronic corpus at uni-frankfurt.de.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Old Turkic — noun The earliest attested Turkic language, found in inscriptions by the Göktürks and the Uyghurs in ca. the 7th to 13th centuries. Syn: East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur …   Wiktionary

  • Old Turkic — the Turkic languages or dialects spoken in Central Asia from the 8th to the 10th centuries. * * * …   Universalium

  • Old Turkic — the Turkic languages or dialects spoken in Central Asia from the 8th to the 10th centuries …   Useful english dictionary

  • Old Turkic alphabet — Old Turkic script Type Alphabet Languages …   Wikipedia

  • Old Turkic language — Old Turkic Spoken in Central Asia Extinct by the 13th century Language family Turkic Southeastern Turkic (Uyghuric) Old Turkic …   Wikipedia

  • Old Turkic script — Infobox Writing system name=Orkhon script type=Alphabet languages=Old Turkic unicode=Not in Unicode fam1=Proto Canaanite fam2=Phoenician fam3=Aramaic fam4=Syriac fam5=Sogdian (controversial) children= Old Hungarian script time=8th to 13th… …   Wikipedia

  • Old Turkic (Unicode block) — In Unicode, the block Old Turkic is located from U+10C00 to U+10C4F. It is used to display the Old Turkic script. Old Turkic[1] Unicode.org chart (PDF)   0 1 2 …   Wikipedia

  • Old Great Bulgaria — ←   ← …   Wikipedia

  • Old Tatar language — (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. İske Tatar tele)) was a literary language used among the Muslim Tatars from the Middle Ages till the 19th century. Old Tatar is a member of the Kipchak (or Northwestern) group of Turkic languages, although it …   Wikipedia

  • Old Uyghur alphabet — Type Abjad/Alphabet …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.