- Cadet branch
The descendants in the male-line of a younger son of a
monarchor patriarchcollectively constitute a cadet branch of that ancestor's lineage. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europeand Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income– have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture: Younger sons – cadets – inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.
In families and cultures in which this was not the custom or law, as in feudal Germany, equal distribution of the family's holdings among descendants was eventually apt to so
fragmentthe inheritance as to render it too small to sustain the descendants at the socio-economiclevel of their forefather. Moreover, brothers and/or their descendants sometimes quarreled over their allocations, or even became estranged. While masculine primogeniturebecame a common way of keeping the family's wealth intact and reducing familial disputes, it did so at the expense of younger sons and their descendants. Both before and after adoption of inheritance by primogeniture, younger brothers sometimes vied with older brothers to be chosen their father's heir or, after the choice was made, sought to usurpthe elder's birthright. Appanage
In the parts of Europe where primogeniture prevailed, cadet sons were generally entitled to receive an
appanagein patrimony, always substantially smaller than the eldest son's inheritance. Often, especially outside of Germany, the younger branch remained subordinate to the elder line as vassals or subjects.
Often, however, one or more younger sons was encouraged to take
clericalorders, thereby forfeiting all rights of inheritance. Or a junior male might be encouraged to pursue a careerin the militaryas an officer, or as a courtieror civil servantin the monarch's capital.
In such cases, primary responsibility for promoting the family's
prestige, ment, and fortune fell upon the senior branch for future generations. A cadet, having less means, was not expected to reproduce a family. If a cadet chose to raise a family, its members were expected to maintain the family's social statusby avoiding , but could pursue endeavors that might be considered demeaning for the senior branch, such as immigrationto another sovereign's realm, or engagement in commerce, or a profession (such as law), academia, or civil service.
In some cases, cadet branches eventually inherited the throne of the senior line, e.g. the
House of Savoy-Carignanin the Duchy of Savoyand the Kingdom of Sardinia; and the Counts Palatine of Zweibrücken in the Electorates of the Palatinateand Bavaria. In other cases, a junior branch came to eclipse more senior lines in rank and power, e.g. the Kings of Prussia and German Emperors who were junior by primogeniture to the Counts and Princes of Hohenzollern, and the Electors and Kings of Saxony who were a younger branch of the House of Wettinthan the Dukes of Saxe-Weimar.
By contrast, it was also sometimes possible for cadet branches to sink in status, either due to diminished fortune or genealogical distance. Such was the case of the Capetian branch of the princes de Courtenay, the last male of which died in 1730 without ever having been recognized by the French crown as "princes du sang". Likewise, the line of the principi di Ottajano, a branch of the
House of Mediciwho were eligible to inherit the grand duchy of Tuscany when the last male of the senior branch died in 1737, but for intervention of the Major Powersthat allocated the sovereignty of Florence elsewhere for reasons of political expediency.
Notable cadet branches
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg; descendants of a younger son of King Christian III of Denmark(of the House of Oldenburg), who eventually became monarchs of Denmarkand Norway, and of which Charles, Prince of Wales, is patrilineally a member.
House of Bourbon; descendants of a younger son of Louis IX of Francewho, in the person of "Henri le Grand" inherited the throne of France from the senior Capetian line of the Valois in 1589; and from which sprung the Bourbon kings of Spain(including the Carlist and French legitimist lines), the kings of the Two Sicilies, and the sovereign Dukes of Parma, who currently reign in the Grand duchy of Luxembourg in a cadet line. Also from Louis XIII de Bourbon descends the cadet branch known as the House of Orléans, to which the Citizen-king Louis-Philippe, the Orleanistclaimants to the throne of France( Henri, comte de Paris, duc de France) belong, as does the House of Orleans-Braganza, which reigned as Emperors of Brazil until 1889.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Branch (disambiguation) — A branch is a part of a woody plant.Branch or branching may also refer to:Computing* Branch (computer science), a point in a computer program where program flow may change depending on a condition. **Branch predictor, the part of a processor that … Wikipedia
cadet — /kəˈdɛt / (say kuh det) noun 1. a person undergoing training in the armed services, police, public service, at sea, etc. 2. a member of a military training unit in a secondary school. 3. NZ a young person in apprenticeship to farming. 4. a… … Australian English dictionary
Cadet Instructors Cadre — Infobox Military Unit unit name=Cadet Instructors Cadre (CIC) caption= dates= country=Canada allegiance=Canada branch=Canadian Forces personnel branch type= Canadian Cadet Movement with the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Royal Canadian Army Cadets,… … Wikipedia
Cadet — For other uses, see Cadet (disambiguation). Philippine Military Cadets … Wikipedia
cadet — noun Usage: often attributive Etymology: French, from Gascon capdet chief, from Late Latin capitellum, diminutive of Latin capit , caput head more at head Date: 1610 1. a. a younger brother or son b. youngest son … New Collegiate Dictionary
Cadet — Genealogical term for the junior branch of a family, i.e. the family and descendants of a younger son … Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases
cadet — noun 1》 a young trainee in the armed services or police. ↘a secondary school pupil who undergoes voluntary training in the armed services. 2》 formal or archaic a younger son or daughter. ↘a junior branch of a family. Derivatives cadetship … English new terms dictionary
New Zealand Cadet Forces — The New Zealand Cadet Forces (NZCF or Cadet Forces) is a voluntary military training organisation for youth. Run in a partnership between the Ministry of Defence, New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF / DF) and a number of appointed community… … Wikipedia
Officer cadet — is a rank held by military and merchant navy cadets during their training to become commissioned officers and merchant navy officers, respectively. The term officer trainee is used interchangeably in some countries. Some countries refer to naval… … Wikipedia
History of the Cadet Instructors Cadre — The History of the Cadet Instructors Cadre dates from well before the establishment of the Cadet Instructor Cadre in 1968. The Canadian Forces Cadet Instructor Cadre will mark 100 years on May 1, 2009. Before the existence of the Cadet Instructor … Wikipedia