Mughal (tribe)


Mughal (tribe)
Mughal
Total population
2,666,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 India Pakistan Bangladesh Uzbekistan Iran Afghanistan United Kingdom United States Canada Australia
Languages

Sindhi • Urdu • PunjabiPersianBengali

Religion

Allah-green.svg Islam 100% •

Related ethnic groups

• Indo-Aryans •

The term Mughal (Persian: مغول) (Urdu: مغل) is simply a Turkic word and many groups in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh use the term Mughal to describe themselves. In theory, the Mughals of South Asia are descended from the various Central Asian Turkic & Mongol armies & immigrants that settled in the region from the early middle ages onwards.

Contents

History and origin

Mughal archers using a smaller bow suitable for horse archery.

In theory, all those who claim Mughal ancestry are descendents of various Central Asian Turkic or Mongol armies that invaded Iran and South Asia from Genghis Khan, to Timur to Babur and beyond. But the term has always had a wider meaning. According to Bernier, a French traveler who visited India during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb: + In medieval period, descendants of various armies that conquered South Asia under Babar were called Mughals. The term was also used for later immigrants from Iran, the Qizilbash community.

The court itself does not now consist, as originally of real Mongols, but a medley of Turkman/Uzbeks, Persians, Arabs and Turks, or descendants of all these classes; known, as said before by the general appellation Mughal by the Muslims of native origin.[2]

As early as the 17th century, the term Mughal covered a large number of groups. Generally, all Central Asian immigrants to India, whether Uzbek, Chughtai, Tajik, Barlas, Kipchak, Kazakhs, Turkman, Kyrgyz, Uyghurs or Mongol, were referred to as Mughal. The term was also used for later immigrants from Iran and Turkey, such as the famous Qizilbash community.

In North India, the term Mughal refers to one of the four social groups that are referred to as the Ashraaf.[3] In Pakistan, a number of tribal groupings such as the Tanoli in North West Frontier Province and the Gheba and Kassar in Punjab claim Mughal ancestry. Sir Denzil Ibbetson, the eminent British student of Punjabi tribal structures, noted a tendency among many tribes of the Pothohar and Upper Hazara regions of Northern Pakistan to claim Mughal ancestry.[4]

Clans

A Mughal family.

The two clans that the original Mughal immigrants belonged to were the Chughtai and Barlas.[5] In Pakistan their main clans are the Qazilbash, Turkmen, Turk, Uzbek, Tajik, Kai and Chak, while in Punjab and on the border between NWFP and Kashmir, the main clans are the Barlas and Chughtai.[6] There are also a number of other tribal groupings who claim Mughal ancestry. Here is a brief description of the five main Mughal clans found in South Asia.

Chughtai

The Chagatai Khanate and its neighbors in the late 13th century

The name Chughtai is a distorted form of Chaghadai, which means Chagan (white) and the suffix –dai The word Chaghadai thus means he who is white. The mother of Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in South Asia, belonged to the Chughtai clan.

The Chughtai are perhaps the most widespread of any of the Mughal clans in South Asia; many came to parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India accompanying Babar. An early census of India conducted by British colonial authorities rather unsurprisingly showed the greatest concentrations of Chughtai to be in Delhi, the centre of Mughal power, in Lucknow, the capital of the Nawabs of Awadh, in the townships of western Uttar Pradesh, Kashmir, in north eastern Hazara and in Punjab (India).

They remain the largest of the Mughal clans and are found throughout in north eastern Hazara, Punjab and Sindh in Pakistan.

Barlas

The Barlas trace their origin to Qarchar .The leading clan of the Barlas tribe traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chaghadai's regiments.

The Barlas formed a significant part of the Mughal population in South Asia. Like the Chagtai, the Barlas were concentrated in cities such as Lahore, Pakistan, a major centre of the Mughal Empire, and a smaller number are believed to have settled in Lukhnow. They are normally found in between the north eastern border between Hazara and Azad Kashmir, in Punjab and in Sindh provinces of Pakistan.

Qizilbash

The term Qizilbash refers to a number of tribes who had helped Shah Ismail I to defeat the Aq Qoyunlu. As these tribes were by far the most important in number and influence, the name Kizilbash is usually applied to them only.[7] Some of these greater Turcoman tribes were subdivided into as many as eight or nine clans and included the:

Other tribes, such as the Turkman, Bahārlu, Qaramānlu, Warsāk,or Ustādjlu, were occasionally listed among these "seven great Aymaqs", or confederation of the Qizilbash.

The Qizilbash President Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan of Pakistan with President Richard Nixon of USA, circa 1970

Population estimates vary from 800,000 to 3,000,000 people who are descendants of the Qizilbash. They established several settlements principally in Pakistan in medieval times, as well as in the urban centres of Afghanistan. Entire villages and sometimes districts were settled by the Qizilbash where many of their descendants can still be found to this day.

In Pakistan, the Qizilbash are predominantly Twelver Shia with a significant Hanafi Sunni minority. The Qizilbash are an influential group found in almost all segments of Pakistani society, particularly in the fertile provinces of Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, Balochistan and Sindh. There are sizeable populations in the cities of Karachi, Multan, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Sialkot, Hyderabad and Rawalpindi.

In India, the Qizilbash are found mainly in Lukhnow, where many prominent Qizilbash families were closely connected with the regime of the Nawabs of Awadh.

Turk

There are two communities in South Asia , those of Punjab (Pakistan) and those of Uttar Pradesh. The Turks of Uttar Pradesh are a cultivating community found in the districts of Rampur and Bareilly and in the Terai region. These Turks are descendants of Turkish soldiers who were said to have been settled along the slopes of the Himalaya by the medieval Mohammed Ghori.

In Punjab, the term Turk refers to any inhabitant of Central Asia, or Turkestan, as the region was historically known. The Turks of the Punjab region include the Karlugh Turks of the Hazara Division. In addition to these Turks, there was also a colony of Turks settled in Gurdaspur District who were once said to be ropemakers. They claim descent from Turk soldiers settled in Gurdaspur District by the Khilji sultans.

Turkmen

Historically, all of the Western or Oghuz Turks have been called Türkmen or derisively Turkoman; however, today the terms are usually restricted to the Turkmen people of Turkmenistan and surrounding area.

The modern Turkmen people descend, at least in part, from the Oghuz Turks of Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkestan, a region that largely corresponds to much of Central Asia as far east as Xinjiang. Oghuz tribes had moved westward from the Altay mountains in the 7th century CE, through the Siberian steppes, and settled in this region. They also penetrated as far west as the Volga basin and the Balkans. A large number of Turkmen clans were settled by the Mughal rulers in North India. The Turkmen now form the principal Mughal clan among the Mughal community of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in North India.

Distribution

A panorama in 12 folds showing a fabulous Eid ul-Fitr procession by Muslims in the Mughal Empire.

The Mughal settled all over South Asia. According to the Joshua Project, there numbers were as follows, India (1,476,000), Bangladesh (39,000) Afghanistan (200), Pakistan ( 1,150,000),and Nepal (1,000).In India, they are found in the following states Uttar Pradesh (624,000), Maharashtra (176,000), Karnataka (138,000), Andhra Pradesh (102,000), Delhi (93,000), Gujarat (77,000), Madhya Pradesh (61,000), Tamil Nadu (41,000) and Bihar (22,000).In Pakistan they are found in the following provinces, Punjab, (549,000), Azad Kashmir (156,000), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (140,000), Sindh (137,000), Islamabad (43,000) and Baluchistan (900).[1]

In Pakistan, there are several clans that claim Mughal ancestry scattered over Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, where historically quite a few Central Asian tribes had settled.

Mughals of North India

The Mughal are found in the states of Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in North India.

In Uttar Pradesh

In Uttar Pradesh (UP), their main clans are the Chughtai, Barlas, Qazilbash, Turkmen, Turk, Uzbek, Tajik, Kai and Chak.[6] The Mughals of Uttar Pradesh belong to both the Sunni and Shia sects, with the majority belonging to the Sunni Hanafi sect. Sunni Mughals are usually orthodox in their religious outlook. The Shia Mughal of Awadh trace their entry into the region to the year 1750. The Mughal of UP are a endogamous community, marrying within their own community, or in communities of a similar status such as the Pathan, Shaikh Siddiqui, Shamsi and Muslim Rajput. The rural Mughal are farmers, and many own orchards, especially mango orchards, while in towns they are engaged in trade, handicrafts, and carpet weaving. Carpet weaving is an activity particularly associated with the UP Mughals, .[8]

The Mughal are found in almost every district of Uttar Pradesh. In the Doab region of western Uttar Pradesh, they belong mainly to the Turkmen and Chughtai clans. The Turkman are predominantly Shia , while the Chughtai are all orthodox Sunnis of the Deobandi school of thought. In Saharanpur District, the Mughals are found mainly in Nakur and Saharanpur tehsils, and belong mainly to the Chughtai and Turkmen. The Shia Turkmen of Lakhnauti Turk in Saharanpur District are a prominent family, having settled in the district during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babar.[9] These Turkmen also extend into the neighbouring Muzaffarnagar District, and are found mainly in Budhana Tehsil.[10] In Bulandshahr District, the main clans are the Qazilbash, Chughtai and Turkmen. Their principal settlement is the village of Mughalpura, about 1 mile (2 km) south west of the city of Bulandshahr. The Mughalpura Mughals are descended from Mirza Bedar Beg, who was said to have been killed by a mad elephant of the Emperor Jahangir, who gave a revenue free grant to his family by way of compensation.[11] In Agra District, they belong mainly to the Chughtai clan, and their main settlement is Chandwar, near the town of Firuzabad; they are descended from one Mohammed Beg.[12]

In the Rohilkhand region, the Mughals are concentrated mainly in Moradabad District, where they belong mainly to the Turk, Chughtai and Turkmen clans. They are concentrated in Moradabad, Bilari and Sambhal tehsils. The Turk clans are found mainly in the Terai region and the Rampur District.[13] After Moradabad, Bareilly District is also home to a large community of Mughals. The Chughtai, Turkmen and Qazilbash are found mainly in Nawabganj and Bareilly tehsils, while the Turks are found mainly in Baheri tehsil, which adjoins the neighbouring Terai region.[14]

In Awadh, the Mughal are concentrated in the city of Lukhnow, home to more Mughals then any other region of Uttar Pradesh. The history of the Mughals in Lukhnow is connected with the Nawabs of Awadh, with a large community of Qazilbash being settled in the city in the 18th century. The Qazilbash Nawabs of Behta were a prominent family of Mughal talukdars. Three quarters of the Awadh Mughal are Shia. Other than the Qazilbash, Lukhnow is also home to small numbers of Chughtais with many of the latter being Sunni. The town of Malihabad, near Lukhnow, is also home to a large community of Chughtai Mughals, while Kakori is home to a small number of Sunni Chughtais.[15]

In Bihar

In Bihar, the Mughals are found in all the districts with a sizeable Muslim population, especially Patna, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Muzaffarpur, Nalanda, Nawada, Gaya, Jahanabad, Munger and other cities.They comprise mainly the urban middle class and are involved in trade and businesses. Many have migrated to large cities like Delhi and Kolkata in search of a livelihood. They are mostly Sunni Muslims. While the Mughal of Darbhanga and Madhubani follow the Salafi and Deobandi aqeedah, the Mughal of Gaya, Nalanda and Nawada are mostly Barelwi Sunnis.

In Delhi

The city of Delhi has always been associated with the Mughal, being the seat of the Mughal dynasty that ruled India for four centuries. Their settlements in Old Delhi date back to the 16th century when the first Mughal courtiers arrived with Babar. The Taimuri clan claims direct descent from the Mughal dynasty. Other sub-groups include the Chughtai, Turkman, Changezi, Barlas, Bakhst and Qazilbash. A large number of Mughals from old Delhi emigrated to Pakistan at partition. A small rump community is left in Delhi. They are still an endogamous community, marrying among themselves, or on occasions with communities of a similar status, such the Sayyid and Pathan. The Taimuri are Sunni, while the Qazilbash and Turkmen are Shia.[16]

In Rajasthan

The Mughal of Rajasthan are concentrated in Bikaner District and in the adjoining districts of Jaipur and Jodhpur. They claim to be descendants of Mughal soldiers in the service of the various Rajput Rajahs of the region. The community has two sub-divisions, the Balla and Chakda, both of which are endogamous. There are however some cases of hypergamous marriages with neighbouring Muslim Rajput groups. The Mughal are mainly a community of cultivators. Camel carting is an important secondary occupation. They are Sunni Muslims, and unlike other Mughal communities in North India, have a traditional council known as the nayat. The nayat traditionally resolves any disputes within the community.Sadulpur,Rajgarh Dist. Churu (Rajasthan) is having number of mughal faimlies those were migrated from Dehli,Agra ,Hansi,Luharu,surajgarh ,Narhar,kathlathal and various mughal offices of Rajputana during mughal period .[17]

In Gujarat

The Mughal community of Gujarat is said to have settled there during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the state was conquered by the Mughals. Historically, the Mughals of Gujarat are descendants of princes, who were granted refuge by Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (1526–1536) when the Mughal power in Delhi was toppled by Sher Shah Suri. The act of giving refuge to a prince, Mohamed Zaman Mirza, by the Sultan of Gujarat led the invasion of the country by the Emperor Humayun. This Mohamed Zaman brought along many camp followers, from whom a significant portion of the Mughal community descended. A second wave of Mughals arrived with Sultan Hussain of Khurasan, who sought refuge in Gujarat after falling with the Emperor Akbar. The descendants of Sultan Hussain settled in Vadodara, Surat and Bharuch. These Indian Mughals are Sunni, and almost all belong to the Taimuri clan. During the 18th century, Iran was in political turmoil as the Safavid dynasty fell from power and the Nader Shah made himself the supreme ruler of Iran. A good many Iranian refugees fled to Gujarat, settling in the ports of Surat and Bharuch. This community is often referred to as the Mirzas, rather the Mughal, and is distinct from other Gujarat Mughals in that they are Shia.[18]

They are now in Sabarkantha, [Bansakantha, Kutch, Mehsana, Junagadh, Rajkot, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Surendranagar, Kheda, Panchmahal, Vadodara, Surat and the Dangs. The Mughal community speak Urdu, mixed with Gujarati or Kutchi. In terms of sectarian affiliation, the community is split into groups, the Sunni Baig, and Shia Mirza.[19]

The Shia Mughal together with the Shia Sayyid are members of the Ithna Ashri Jamat.[19]

Mughal of Pakistan

In Pakistan, Mughal communities are found in Sindh and Punjab provinces.

In Punjab

The region of Punjab is also home to a large number of Mughal communities. Historically, they were found in the largest numbers in and around the city of the Rawalpindi Division. The Mughal of the Rawalpindi Division belong to local agricultural tribes locally known by their tribal names, such as the Satti, Gheba, Phaphra and kassar tribes of the Barlas Mughals and Chughtai are also found in the Punjab[20] In addition to these agriculture tribes, members of the Lohar community found in the Punjab also claim Mughal ancestry.[21] A brief description of the major tribal groupings in Punjab that claim Mughal ancestry follows.

Phaphra

Several tribal groupings in the Pothohar region of Punjab, Pakistan claim Mughal ancestry. One such tribe are the Phaphra. They occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles (65 km2) at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan in Jhelum District in Pakistan.

According to their tradition, the tribe came from the direction of Faridkot in Punjab, and settled in the district as traders and agriculturists. The tribe claims descent from a Phaphra who settled in the district in the 15th century .

Gheba

The Gheba are another tribe from the Pothohar region, being one of the principal tribes of the Attock District. They are found mainly in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock and claim descent from Gheba khan, who was said to be a Barlas Mughal.[6]

Khamb

The Khamb is another tribe claiming to be Mughal, and found mainly in the Pothohar region of northern Punjab. According to their traditions, the ancestors of the Khamb arrived from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India.

The Khamb were settled in their present abode by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region of Pakistan, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambait. He ordered villages to be built named Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted land in and around the new town.[22] At present they live in Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur in the Gujrat district of Punjab.

Kassar

The Kassar are a Mughal tribe and one of the three major land-owning tribes in the Dhani country of Chakwal District in Punjab province, Pakistan.[23] They occupy the northern part of Dhani, called Babial and Chaupeda. According to the Jhelum District settlement report of 1862, they are mentioned as having come from Jammu along with the Mair-Minhas tribe and been settled in this area by the Mughal Emperor, Zaheerudin Babur. According to their traditions, they claim descent from a kinsmen of the Emperor Babur, Kassar khan. He was said to be a distant cousin of Babur. Chakwal.

Jandran

The Jandran are a tribe of Mughal status, found mainly Jhang, Khanewal, Vehari, Lodhran and Sargodha districts of Punjab.[5]

Ogahi

The Ogahi are a Mughal tribe present in the districts of lahore,faisalabad,nankana,etc.They use Mian before there name,It is a land-owning tribe of punjab.Some of the people of Ogahi tribe are also present in the provinces Sindh and Balochistan.

Other clans

  • Baig Mughal
  • Mirza Mughal
  • Ginhal Mughal
  • Bandey Mughal
  • Mir Mughal
  • Mangval Mughal
  • Langryal Mughal
  • Bich Mughal
  • Ganai Mughal
  • Ashaie Mughal
  • Bub Mughal
  • Ganju Gharhi Mughal
  • Batlla Mughal
  • Babri Mughal
  • Salour Mughal
  • Numbeli mughal (tribe of murree)
  • Manjotha mughal
  • Marrar Mughal Barlas
  • Mughalzai
  • Mughal khel
  • Mangal
  • Orya khel
  • Mughal Lal Khail

In Sindh

Mughal Aristocracy Hunting a Blackbuck alongside an Asiatic Cheetah.

In Sindh, two Mughal dynasties, the Arghun and Tarkhan, held power for a short periods in the 16th Century. Most of the Sindhi Mughals are descended from these two dynasties, these two dynasties who were later subdued by Babur. Many Sindhi Mughal's also claim to have arrived in the region during the rebellion of Sher Shah Suri against the Mughal heir-apparent Humayun, in fact many Mughal's settled in Umarkot, and young Akbar was born there. in Sindh the Mughals ruled with the assistance of the Kalhora tribe. Among the famous Mughal administrators of Sindh was Mirza Ghazi Beg, during his rule many Sindhi's entered the service of the Mughal Emperors. Sindh is also home to a large number of Mughals also known as the Lohar (Metalsmith), named after their family profession.

A small number of Qazilbash tribesmen settled in Sindh in the 18th Century. A small number of Mughal families are descended from Georgian immigrants, such as the family of Mirza Qilich Beg, the famous Sindhi, who came to during the invasion of Nadir Shah and flourished during the rule of Talpurs. The Sindh Mughals are Sunni, and now entirely speak Sindhi.[24]

a famous name Dr. Tasadduq Mughal the 1st Civil Surgeon of The Sevices Hospital Karachi after the separation of Indo-Pak....(late) Dr. Tasadduq arranged his sister Begum Badarunisa mughal's marriage with Sardar A.B Abro (Add.Secretary West Pakistan Govt.) and left for higher studies/practice in U.S.A. Married with a German lady and settled in United States. His sister (late) Begum Badarunisa Mughal spend her life in Sindh with her Loving husband and 6 kids,2 boys are presently Govt. Officers (Salahuddin Abro Asst. Director F.I.A and Shujauddin Abro Add. Secretary/Member Chief Minister's Inspection & Enquiry Team). Manzoor mughal (D.I.G)Deputy inspector general of police investigations Karachi.Now present Director Intelligence Karachi.Ghulam Nabi Mughal, an eminent writer of sindhi language and retired Regional Director Food Deppt. (Govt. Sindh), belongs to Hyderabad since 1915-20. His family lineage revealed that they were first came into Nasrpur (Sindh, period approximately in the end of 17th century) from the region of kashmir.

Ogahi

Ogahi is a tribe present in Shikarpur,Hyderabad,etc in Sindh.It is a Land-owning tribe of Sindh.It is a clan of Mughal Tribe.

In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Hazara

In Hazara, the Mughals are found in villages like Mansehra (Behali, Bararkot, Gulli Bagh, Pakhli and Mohandri). In Abbottabad (Aziz Abad, Chatri, Dobathar, Tarnawai, Richbhen, Solan, jhangi, Samesar, Sultanpur, Tarari and in Haripur Ghazi Tehsil Mankaray Sawabi Topi.

  • Mughal
  • Mirza
  • Douli
  • Tarkhan
  • Baig

Mughal of Jammu and Kashmir

Beg

The Beg or Baig are said to be the descendents of Mughal soldiers, who were custodians of the treasury. They are an urban community, found in their own quarters in the cities of Anantnag, Baramulla, Badgam, Neelum valley, Muzaffarabad and borders adjoining with Hazara division Pakistan. According to some traditions, the Beg are in fact descended from Uighur of Kashgar, and many also refer to themselves as Kashgari. They remained a community distinct from other Kashmiri Muslims and were only granted state citizenship in 1939. Many are still involved in their traditional occupation of carpet weaving and embroidery. The Beg are entirely Sunni Muslim, and historically affiliated to the Barelvi sect, with many belonging to the Dastigiri Sufi order. A few of the Mughals also follow the Deobandi sect.[25] one of such clans is presently living in village Chogal of Handwara Tehsil, District Kupwara, they carry surname Khan but revenue records show that their surname is Beig/Mughal and are known by the surname Khan. They speak generally Punjabi Language, identifying themselves with Punjabi dialect.

−=== Mughal of Jammu and Mirpur === The Mughal of Jammu and Azad Kashmir share many culture similarities with the Mughal of Punjab. There are number of agrarian tribes, such as the Douli, Junhal Maldial and Hoteel who claim Mughal ancestry. These Mughal tribes all claim to have settled in the Jammu and Mirpur region during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Babar. The Emperor is said to have settled these tribes as a bulwark against the local Rajput tribes, who were continuously rebelling against the Mughal authority. The Chughtai Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the Indian mutiny of 1857.[26]

The Mughal in the Jammu region are settled mainly in Jammu,Bhadarwah(Distt.Doda) Nawshera, Rajauri and Poonch. Those of Jammu are a Punjabi speaking community. The Jammu city Chughtai Mughal are an urban community, many of whom migrated to Pakistan at the time of the partition of India, an event which also led to the division of Jammu and Kashmir. The Mughal tribes of Rajauri and Poonch region are effectively separated from their kinsmen by the line of control. These division especially affects the Junhal and Douli tribes, who villages are literally bisected by the line of control. The Mughals in Azad Kashmir are found mainly in the southern districts of Mirpur, Kotli and Bhimber, and are culturally the same as Jammu Mughals. Other than the Chughtai of Jammu, who are Shia, the other Mughal communities are Sunni, equally divided between Barelvis and Deobandi.[26]

The Mughal of Azad Kashmir and Rajauri-Poonch are an agrarian community, living in mult-community villages and cultivating their own fields. They are not endogamous, marrying into neighbouring Pahari Rajput communities.

Here is a brief descriptions of the main clans:

Mirza

Mirza title used by many clans of mughal descent. Found mainly in Azad Kashmir and provinces of punjab. The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means "child of the ‘Amīr" or "child of the leader" in Persia and Kurdistan. ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr (engl. Emir), meaning "commander", and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning "birth" or "lineage".

The Barlas clan commonly used the name Baig (also spelt Beg) to identify high ranked members of their clan. For the Barlas people Mirza was used as a title, and Baig was attached as the surname to all the patriarchs, thus creating the Mirza Baig lineage. (e.g. Mirza Mansur Baig or even Mansur Mirza Baig). The names Mirza and Baig are still used today, to identify Mughal ancestry. (See Baig) The title was also adopted by some Rajput Clans of India like Jarral of Jummu and Kashmir, subsequent to Mughal conquest of India.

Maldiyal

The Maldiyal are found in Bagh District and Tehsil Abbaspur of Poonch District in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. The Word "Maldyal" is derived from the name of Mirza Moloud Baig, a Chughtai Mughal, who is said to have settled in Poonch in the 15th century. They are one of a number of clans found in the Pothohar region and adjoining areas of Azad Kashmir and Hazara which claim Mughal ancestry. Maldiyal are the highest sub castes of mughal mostly found in villages of Birpani, Samni, Dharian, Chatar & Salian of Bagh district. There are many tribes in this sub caste.

Hoteel

The Hoteel are sub-tribe of Mughal. They are found in Punjab and Azad Kashmir. In Punjab they are scattered in many districts. Hoteel is a huge part of Punjab's population. In Azad Kashmir this tribe is mainly found in Bangion,Jandala and timrota Rawalakot else. Hoteels are also residing in many other parts of Azad Kashmir. The people of this tribe living in Azad Kashmir speak Pahari. Hoteels called Chughtai as well.

Junhal

The Junhal are a tribe found in Poonch District, which is now split by the line of control. They were once a powerful tribe but nearly destroyed by the Gakhars. More than any other tribal grouping in Jammu and Kashmir, the Junhal have been particularly affected by the division of Kashmir, as their villages lie exactly at the line of control, with some now in the Indian zone, while others are in the Pakistani zone.[27]

Douli

The Douli are a tribe of Mughal status, found mainly in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Douli are also found mainly in both Indian-administered and Pakistani-administered districts of Poonch. They are one of the many clans in the Poonch region . Their villages are mainly along the line of control in Poonch District, including Dara Sher Khan, Mandhole, Sahra, Batal, Dahramsal, Tetrinote, Madhar Pore, Mahndala, Abbaspur, Serarri and regions of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan

khan Mughal

The Khan Mughal are tribe of Mughal status found in Azad Kashmir, They are locally referred to as Kamagar, which is drived from word Kaman Gar, which means weapon makers in the Persian language. According to their traditions, they were part of the Mughal under the leadership of Babur. They were mainly concerned with manufacturing arms and weapons.[28]

Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the failure of the Indian mutiny of 1857.[26]

Notable Mughals

  • Nawab Sardar Sir Mohammed Nawaz Khan [Nawab of State Kot Fateh Khan] District Attock,Punjab[Pakistan]
  • General Mirza Aslam Baig
  • General Mohammad Abbas Baig know as Baba-e-Artillery" (father of the Artillery) for his role in establishing this core section of Pakistani army.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Abbas_Baig
  • General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash third President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971 /
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahya_Khan
  • Mir Painda Khan
  • Mir Jehandad Khan
  • Sultan Muhammad Khan of Beer member of 1st British India Parliament (1932)
  • Farid Khan of Beer member of Parliament 1st Parliament of Pakistan 1948,49 up to 1958
  • Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan
  • Muhammad Farid Khan
  • Muhammad Ayub Khan Tanoli former Law and Education minister,President of Bar association three times...
  • Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan
  • Hakim Taniwal, Governor of Paktia province in Afghanistan
  • Mufti Munib-ur Rehman, Presidant of rohiat e hillaila committee
  • Zaheer Jamshed Ahmed Mughal, President of Mughal Association, Kotli Azad Kashmir and Managing Director of Al Badar Digital colour lab and Haroon Digital Photo studio Kotli Azad Kashmir
  • Saeed Mughal Ex Nazam Jhangi Abbottabad.
  • Malik Bashir Hussain Mughal Advocate Ex Member District Council Abbottabad
  • Aurangzeb Mughal Advocate Ex Chairman Union council abbottabad.
  • Naeem Gul Of abbottabad Ex Captain Pakistan Football Team.
  • Tanveer Ahmad Mughal advocate of Abbottabad executive Member supreme court bar association Pakistan.
  • Mian Aftab Ahmed Asif, Chief Exective Officer At Contonement Board Sargodha Cantt.Belongs to the Ogahi tribe.
  • Mian Abdul Wahid, Ex Nazim of Syedwala,also belongs to the Ogahi Tribe

Reference

  1. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?peo3=13761
  2. ^ Bernier's Travels in the Mogul Empire (Paperback) by Francois Bernier Constable 1891
  3. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960
  4. ^ A Glossary of the tribes & castes of Punjab bu H. A Rose
  5. ^ a b A Glossary of the tribes & castes of Punjab bu H. A Rose
  6. ^ a b c Hindustani Musalmans and Musalman of East Punjab by W Bourne page 35
  7. ^ V. Minorsky, "Tadhkirat al-muluk", London 1943, p. 16-18, p.188
  8. ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 986 to 990 Manohar Publications
  9. ^ A Gazetteer of Saharanpur District by H. Neville, p. 111
  10. ^ A Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar District by H. Neville p. 92
  11. ^ A Gazetteer of Bulandshar District by H. Neville, p. 83
  12. ^ A Gazetteer of Agra District by H. Neville, p. 81
  13. ^ A Gazetteer of Moradabad District by H. Neville, p. 79
  14. ^ A Gazetteer of Bareilly District by H. Neville, p. 93
  15. ^ Lukhnow District: A Gazetteer Volume XXXVII, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces edited by H. Neville
  16. ^ People of India Delhi Volume XX edited by T. Ghosh & S. Nath pp. 485-489, Manohar Publications
  17. ^ People of India Rajasthan Volume XXXVIII Part Two edited by B.K. Lavania, D.K. Samanta, S.K. Mandal & N.N Vyas, pp. 986-990, Popular Prakashan
  18. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX, p. 9f., Government Central Press, Bombay
  19. ^ a b People of India Gujarat Volume XXII Part Two edited by R.B. Lal, S.V. Padmanabham & A. Mohideen, pp. 953-957, Popular Prakashan
  20. ^ .A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of Punjab by H A Rose p. 130f., Low Price Publications
  21. ^ Culture, class and development in Pakistan: the emergence of an industrial bourgeoisie in Punjab by A.M. Weiss - Westview
  22. ^ Tareekh-e-Mughal by Muhammad Ilyas Mirza. The People living there are identifiable with many having blonde hair and blue eyes.
  23. ^ Brandeth, A: "District Gazetteer Jehllum", p. 104, Punjab Government Press, 1904
  24. ^ Gazetteer of the Province of Sind by E H Aitken page 177 Mercantile Steam Press
  25. ^ People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S Charak and B.R.Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 128 to133 Manohar Publications
  26. ^ a b c People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S Charak and B.R.Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 523 to526 Manohar Publications
  27. ^ PUNJABI MUSALMANS Lt. Col. J.M. Wikeley Second Edition THE BOOK HOUSE
  28. ^ Tareekh-e-Mughal by Muhammad Ilyas

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