- Swedish literature
Swedish literature refers to literature written in the
Swedish languageor by writers from Sweden. [For example, both Birgitta of Sweden(14th century) and Emanuel Swedenborg(18th century) wrote most of their work in Latin, but since they came from Sweden, their works are generally considered part of Swedish literature by authorities such as Algulin (1989), and Delblanc, Lönnroth & Gustafsson (1999). ]
The first literary text from Sweden is the
Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Agecirca 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
With improved education and the freedom brought by
secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm(17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren(18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman(late 18th century), the first writer of burlesqueballads; and August Strindberg(late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf(Nobel laureate 1909) and Pär Lagerkvist(Nobel laureate 1951). Between 1949 and 1959, Vilhelm Mobergwrote the four-book series "The Emigrants" (Swedish: "Utvandrarna"), often considered one of the best literary works from Sweden.
In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist
Henning Mankelland the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. Also well-known outside of Sweden is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, author of works such as Pippi Longstocking, Emil of Maple Hills, and others.
Most runestones had a practical, rather than a literary, purpose and are therefore mainly of interest to
historians and philologists. Several runic inscriptions are also nonsensical by nature, being used for magical or incantatory purposes. The most notable literary exception is the Rök Runestonefrom circa 800 AD. It contains the longest known inscription, and encompasses several different passages from sagas and legends, in various prosodic forms. Part of it is written in alliterative verse, or " fornyrdislag". It is generally regarded as the beginning of Swedish literature.Gustafson, 1961 (Chapter 1)] ["Forntid och medeltid", Lönnroth, in Lönnroth, Göransson, Delblanc, "Den svenska litteraturen", vol 1.]
Christianizationof Sweden was one of the main events in the country's history, and it naturally had an equally profound impact on literature.
The Gök runestone is a case in point of how the older literature dissolved. It uses the same imagery as the
Ramsund carving, but a Christian cross has been added and the images are combined in a way that completely distorts the internal logic of events.Lönnroth, L. & Delblanc, S. (1993). "Den svenska litteraturen. 1, Från forntid till frihetstid : 800-1718". Stockholm : Bonnier Alba. ISBN 91-34-51408-2 p. 49.] Whatever the reason may have been, the Gök stone illustrates how the pagan heroic mythos was going towards its dissolution, during the introduction of Christianity.
Literature now looked to foreign texts to provide models. By 1200, Christianity was firmly established and a Medieval European culture appeared in Sweden. Only a selected few mastered the written language, but little was written down. Complete manuscripts are only found from the early 14th century, written in Latin. The earliest known complete books in the Swedish language are from the end of that century.
Most education was provided by the Catholic Church, and therefore the literature from this period is mainly of a theological or clerical nature. The majority of other literature written consists of law texts.
16th and 17th century
Swedish Reformation literature is considered to have been written between 1526 and 1658. However, this period has not been highly regarded from a literary point of view. It is generally considered a step back in terms of literary development. [Tigerstedt, p.68-70] [Algulin, p.25, also agrees] [Gustafson, p.54, also agrees] The main reason was King
Gustav Vasa's wish to control and censor all publications, with the result that only the Bible and a few other religious works were published. [This account is given by Hägg (1996), p.83-84] At the same time, Catholic monasteries were plundered and Catholic books were burnt. The king did not consider it important to reestablish higher education, so Uppsala Universitywas left to decay. [This account is given in Tigerstedt (1971), p.68-70]
There were comparatively few groups of writers during this time. The burghers still had little influence, while the Church
clerics had had their importance severely reduced. The Protestant Reformationof the 1520s left priests with a fraction of their previous political and economic power. Those Swedes who wanted higher education usually had to travel abroad to the universities of Rostock or Wittenberg.Tigerstedt]
Apart from Christian Reformation literature there was one other significant ideological movement. This was
Gothicismus, which glorified Sweden's ancient history.Tigerstedt]
While contributions to Swedish culture were sparse, this period did at least provide an invaluable basis for future development. Most importantly, the Swedish Bible translation of 1541, the so called
Gustav Vasa Bible, gave Sweden a uniform language for the first time. Secondly, the introduction of the printing pressresulted in literature being spread to groups it had previously been unable to reach.Tigerstedt]
The period in Swedish history between 1630 and 1718 is known as the
Swedish Empire. It partly corresponds to an independent literary period. The literature of the Swedish Empire era is regarded as the beginning of the Swedish literary tradition. [Tigersted] Renaissanceliterature is considered to have been written between 1658 and 1732. It was in 1658 that Georg Stiernhielmpublished his "Herculus", the first hexametrical poem in the Swedish language.
When Sweden became a
great power, a stronger middle classculture arose. Unlike the age of the Reformation, education was no longer solely a matter of ecclesiasticalstudies such as theology. During this era, there was a wealth of influences from the leading countries of the time, namely Germany, France, Holland and Italy. It was symptomatic that the man who came to be known as Sweden's first poet, Georg Stiernhielm, was more acquainted with Ancient philosophythan with Christian teachings. Gothicismusalso gained in strength. During the Swedish Empire period, it developed into a literary paradigm, the purpose of which was to foster the idea that Sweden was a natural great power. [Tigerstedt]
The 18th century has been described as the Swedish Golden Age in literature and science. During this period, Sweden produced authors and literature of a much higher standard than ever before. One key factor was the political period known as the "Age of Liberty" (1712–1772), and the first Swedish
freedom of the pressact written in 1766 (see Constitution of Sweden). It meant the ultimate breakthrough of secular literature. [Gustafson, pp.102-103] [Warburg, p.57 ( [http://runeberg.org/svlihist/57.html Online link] )]
Naturally, the impulses that invigorated Swedish cultural life had their origin in the European
Age of Enlightenment. The main influences came from Germany, England and France, and these were reflected in Swedish literature. The Swedish language became enriched by French words, and ideas of liberalization were based on the English model. [Algulin, pp.38-39]
Swedish literature consolidated around 1750; this is considered the start of a linguistic period called Late
Modern Swedish(1750 – circa 1880). The first great works of the age were those of Olov von Dalin(1708–1763), and in particular his weekly "Then Svenska Argus", based on Joseph Addison's " The Spectator". Dalin gave a sketch of Swedish culture and history using language which had an unprecedented richness of sarcasmand irony. In the 1730s and 1740s, Dalin was unrivalled as the brightest star in the Swedish literary sky. He was the first to refine the language for practical purposes, in comparison with the laboured poetry of the 17th century, and he was the first author to be read and appreciated by the general public. [Algulin, pp.39-41] [Gustafson, p.108]
In the 18th century, Latin rapidly declined in popularity in favour of the national language. One of the first authors to aim his books directly at the general public was the world-renowned botanist
Carolus Linnaeus(1707–1778). Later key figures included the poets Johan Henrik Kellgren(1751–1795) and Carl Michael Bellman(1740–1795).
In European history, the period "circa" 1805–1840 is known as
Romanticism. It also made a strong impression on Sweden, due to German influences. During this relatively short period, there were so many great Swedish poets that the era is referred to as the Golden Age of Swedish poetry.Algulin, pp.67-68] Gustafson, pp.143-148] The period started around 1810 when several periodicals were published which rejected the literature of the 18th century. An important society was the " Gothic Society" (1811), and their periodical "Iduna", a romanticised look back towards Gothicismus.x]
One significant reason was that several poets for the first time worked towards a common direction. Four of the main romantic poets who made significant contributions to the movement were: the professor of history
Erik Gustaf Geijer, the loner Erik Johan Stagnelius, the professor of Greek language Esaias Tegnérand the professor of aesthetics and philosophy P.D.A. Atterbom. [Gustafson, p.146]
The period between 1835–1879 is known as the early liberal period in Swedish history. The views of the Romantics had come to be perceived by many as inflated and overburdened by formality. The first outspoken liberal newspaper in Sweden, "
Aftonbladet", was founded in 1830. It quickly became the leading newspaper in Sweden because of its liberal views and criticism of the current state of affairs. The newspaper played its part in turning literature in a more realistic direction, because of its more concise use of language. [Algulin, p.82-83] [Gustafson, pp.187-188]
Several authorities would regard
Carl Jonas Love Almqvist(1793–1866) as the most outstanding genius of the 19th century in Sweden. [Algulin, p.86] Beginning in 1838, he published a series of socially and politically radical stories attacking both marriage and clerical institutions. Several of his ideas are still interesting for modern readers, in particular the work "Det går an" (1839) which reached the German bestseller list as late as 2004. [Translated by Anne Stormas "Die Woche mit Sara" (2004), ISBN 3-463-40457-5 [http://www.zdf.de/ZDFde/inhalt/27/0,1872,2123963,00.html ZDF page] ] [Gustafson, pp.196-200]
Naturalism, or realism
Naturalism is one name for the literary period between 1880-1900. In Sweden, however, the period starting in 1880 is known as realism. This is partly because the 1880s had a such a strong focus on
social realism, and partly because the 1890s was a period of its own, the "90s poets". [With time, however, the classification of 90s poets separate from the 1880 realism has become less prominent among scholars. A distinction between the two periods is made by Gustafson, pp.228-268 (1961) but not in Algulin, pp.109-115 (1989)]
In the late 19th and early 20th century,
Scandinavian literaturemade its first and so far only impression on world literature. From Sweden, the main name was August Strindberg, but Ola Hansson, Selma Lagerlöfand Victoria Benedictssonalso attained wider recognition. [Algulin, p.109]
The breakthrough of realism in Sweden occurred in 1879. That year,
August Strindberg(1845-1912) published his " Röda Rummet". "Röda Rummet" was a satirical novel that relentlessly attacked the political, the academic, the philosophical and the religious worlds.Algulin pp.115-132] Gustafson, pp.238-257]
August Strindberg was a writer world-famous for his dramas and prose, noted for his exceptional talent and complex intellect. He would continue to write several books and dramas until his death in Stockholm.Algulin pp.115-132] Gustafson, pp.238-257]
The 90s poets
The Swedish 1890s is noted for its poetic
neo-romanticism, a reaction to the socio-realistic literature of the 1880s. The first key literary figure to emerge was Verner von Heidenstam(1859-1940); his literary debut came in 1887 with the collection of poetry "Vallfart och vandringsår" (Pilgrimage and Wander-Years). [Algulin, pp.137-140] [Gustafson, vol2, p.11] Selma Lagerlöf(1858-1940) was arguably the brightest star of the 1890s, and her influence has lasted up to modern times. Two of her major works, which have been translated into several languages, are " The Wonderful Adventures of Nils" (1906-1907) and " Gösta Berlings saga" (1891), but she also wrote several other highly regarded books. Lagerlöf was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literaturein 1909, mainly for her storytelling abilities." [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1909/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ] [Algulin, pp.158-160]
It was in the 1910s that a new literary period began with the ageing
August Strindberg, who published several critical articles, contesting many conservative values. With the advent of social democracyand large-scale strikes, the winds were blowing in the direction of social reforms. [Gustafson, vol. 2, p. 12] Gustafson, vol. 2, pp.7-16]
In the 1910s, the dominant form of literary expression was now the novel. One of the earliest novelists was
Hjalmar Söderberg(1869–1941). Söderberg wrote in a somewhat cynical way, at times with Nietzschean overtones, disillusionment and pessimism. In 1901 he published "Martin Birck's Youth". It was appreciated by many for its literary qualities, but an even greater aspect was its depiction of Stockholm, which is widely regarded as the best portrait of Stockholm ever written. [As told by Gustafson, vol 2 (1961)] His most highly regarded work was yet to come however: " Doctor Glas" (1905), a tale of vengeance and passion, viewed by some as the best and most complete of all Swedish novels. [As reported by Algulin, p.169 (1989)] Margaret Atwood, for example, has said of "Doctor Glas": "It occurs on the cusp of the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, but it opens doors the novel has been opening ever since". [From her introduction to the translation by Paul Britten Austin, Harvill Press Edition, 2002, ISBN 1-84343-009-6.]
Swedish agriculture had a system with labourers called "
statare", who were paid in kindonly, with product and housing, comparable with the anglo-saxon truck system. Among the few people with this background who made an intellectual career were the writers Ivar Lo-Johansson, Moa Martinsonand Jan Fridegård. Their works were important to the abolitionof the system.
A well-known proletarian writer who gained fame after World War II was
Vilhelm Moberg(1898-1973). He usually wrote about the lives of ordinary people and in particular the peasantpopulation. Moberg's monumental work was published shortly after the war: the four-volume "The Emigrants" series (1949-1959), about the Swedish emigration to North America. In this work, Moberg sentimentally depicted a 19th century couple during their move to the New World; and the many struggles and difficulties they had to endure. [Algulin, pp.191-194]
In the 1930s a new awareness of children's needs emerged. This manifested itself shortly after World War II, when
Astrid Lindgrenpublished Pippi Longstockingin 1945. Pippi's rebellious behaviour at first sparked resistance among some defenders of cultural values, but eventually she was accepted, and with that children's literature was freed from the obligation to promote moralism.Svensson, S., "Så skulle världen bli som ny", in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), "Den svenska litteraturen", vol. 3. (1999)] [More information about Pippi Longstocking in Swedish culture can be found in the article " [http://www.Sweden.se/pippi Pippi Longstocking: Swedish rebel and feminist role model] " from the Swedish Institute, accessed October 15, 2006]
Astrid Lindgren continued to publish many best-selling children's books which eventually made her the most read Swedish author, regardless of genre, with over 100 million copies printed throughout the world and translations into over 80 languages. In many other books Lindgren showed her fine understanding of children's thought and values; in
The Brothers Lionheartabout death, as well as a tale of bravery; in Mio, my Mioa fairy tale about friendship. But not all her stories had deep messages. Three books on Karlsson-on-the-Roof(1955, '62, '68) are about a short, chubby and mischievous man with a propeller on his back, who is befriended by a boy. Lindgren wrote twelve books about Emil of Maple Hills, a boy living in the Smålandcountryside in the early 1900s, who continuously gets intro trouble because of his pranks.Svensson, S., "Så skulle världen bli som ny", in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), "Den svenska litteraturen", vol. 3. (1999)]
One of few
fantasywriters in Swedish literature was the Finnish writer Tove Jansson(1914-2001), who wrote, in the Swedish language, about the Moomins. The Moomins are trolls who live in an economically and politically independent state, without any materialistic concerns. The Moomins have appealed to people in many different countries and Jansson's books have been translated into over 30 languages.x] [Tampere Art Museum website, accessed October 20, 2006]
Before World War II the Swedish
detective novelwas based on American models. After World War II, it developed in an independent direction. In the 1960s, Maj Sjöwall(1935–) and Per Wahlöö(1926–1975) collaborated to produce a series of internationally acclaimed detective novels about the detective Martin Beck. Other writers followed.
The most successful writer of detective novels is
Henning Mankell(1948–), with his series on Kurt Wallander. They have been translated to 37 languages and have become bestsellers, particularly in Sweden and Germany. [" [http://www.Sweden.se/templates/cs/Article____14829.aspx On the trail of Sweden’s most famous detective] ", Swedish Institute, accessed October 17, 2006] But Mankell has also written several other acclaimed books, such as "Comédia Infantil" (1995), about an abandoned street boy in the city of Maputo.Chapter "Det populära kretsloppet", Hedman, Lönnroth & Ingvarsson, in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), vol 3.]
Several other Swedish detective writers have become popular abroad, particularly in Germany; for example
Liza Marklund(1962–), Håkan Nesser(1950–), Åsa Larsson, Arne Dahl, Leif GW Persson, and Åke Edwardsson.
spy fictiongenre, the most successful writer is Jan Guillou(1944–) and his best-selling books about the spy Carl Hamilton, many of which have also been filmed. Of Guillou's other works, the two most notable are his series on the Knight Templar Arn Magnusson and the semi-autobiographical novel with the metaphorical title Ondskan ("The Evil").
balladtradition had been initiated by Bellman in the late 18th century. In the 19th century, poetic songwriting fell into decline with the rise of university student choirs, until it was again revived in the 1890s. Poets increasingly continued the tradition of having their poetry set to music to give it a wider audience. In the early 1900s, a lot of poetry of the 90s poets Gustaf Frödingand Erik Axel Karlfeldthad been put to music, and the popularity of those poets largely depended on the troubadours.
Arguably the most renowned Swedish troubadour of the 20th century was however
Evert Taube(1890–1976). He established himself as a performing artist in 1920 and toured Sweden for about three decades. He is best known for songs about sailors, ballads about Argentina, and songs about the Swedish countryside."Nöjets estradörer", Lönnroth L., in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), vol 3, pp.275-297]
Between 1962 up until his death, the most highly regarded
singer-songwriterin the Swedish ballad tradition was Cornelis Vreeswijk(1937–1987). His songs were initially leftist protest songs where he took it upon himself to speak for society's underdogs. After his death, Vreeswijk also gained appreciation for his poetic qualities."Nöjets estradörer", Lönnroth L., in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), vol 3, pp.275-297]
In the 1930s and 40's, poetry was influenced by the ideals of
modernism. Distinguishing features included the desire to experiment, and to try a variety of styles, usually free verse without rhyme or metre.
The leading modernist figure soon turned out to be
Hjalmar Gullberg(1898–1961). He wrote many mystical and Christian-influenced collections, such as "Andliga övningar" ("Spiritual Exercises", 1932) and others. After a poetical break 1942-1952, he resurfaced with a new style in the 1950s. Atheistic on the surface, it was influential for the younger generation. [Tigerstedt (1975), pp. 474-476] [Hägg (1996), pp.481-484] Gunnar Ekelöf(1907–1968) has been described as Sweden's first surrealistic poet, due to his first poetry collection, the nihilistic "Sent på jorden" (1932), a work hardly understood by his contemporaries."Lundkvist, Martinsson, Ekelöf", by Espmark & Olsson, in Delblanc, Lönnroth, Göransson, vol 3] But Ekelöf moved towards romanticismand with his second poetry collection "Dedikationen" in 1934 he became appreciated in wider circles.x] He continued to write until his old age, and was to attain a dominant position in Swedish poetry. His style has been described as heavy with symbolism and enigmatic, while at the same time tormented and ironical. [Hägg (1996), pp. 528-524]
Another important modernist poet was
Harry Martinson(1904–1978). Harry Martinson had an unparalleled feeling for nature, in the spirit of Linnaeus. As was typical for his generation, he wrote free verse, not bound by rhyme or syllable-count. He also wrote novels, a classic work being the autobiographical "Flowering Nettles", in 1935. His most remarkable work was, however, " Aniara", 1956, a story of a spaceship drifting through space. [Algulin, p.230-231]
Arguably the most famous Swedish poet of the 20th century is
Tomas Tranströmer(1931–). His poetry is distinguished by a Christian mysticism, moving on the verge between dream and reality, the physical and the metaphysical. ["Poeten dold i Bilden", Lilja & Schiöler, in Lönnroth, Delblanc & Göransson (ed.), vol 3, pp.342-370]
Several writers of drama surfaced after World War II. In the 1950s,
revues were popular; some names of the era were the comedians Povel Rameland Kar de Mumma. The Hasseåtageduo continued the comedic tradition in 1962 and became something of an institution in the Swedish revue world for twenty years, encompassing radio, televion and film productions.
With the late 1960s came a breakthrough for alternative drama of a freer nature, and theatre became more of a venue for popular tastes. In the 1970s and 80's, the two most noted playwrights were
Lars Norén(1944–) and Per Olov Enquist(1934–). ["Från hovteater till arbetarspel", Forser & TJäder, in Delblanc, Göransson & Lönnroth, "Den svenska litteraturen", vol 3.]
Literature in pop music lyrics
This literary period began in Sweden in the 1960s, influenced by artists from England and the U.S. At first, the literary quality in Swedish pop music was little more than an imitation of foreign models, and it took until the 1970s for an independent movement to emerge. In that decade, youth
grassrootsmusic reached unprecedented popularity, and opened the possibility for unestablished artists to have their music published. Because of the common political message these bands often presented, they are classified as " Progg" (short for "progressive"). While few Progg-artists actually produced anything worthwhile, there were some acts who stood out. Nationalteaternwere significant because they were not only a musical group, but also theatre performers; and in the talented leftist artist Mikael Wiehe(1946–) of Hoola Bandoola Band, there was a renewal of Swedish balladwriting, in the direction of high quality proletarian lyrics.
One of the rebels of the 1970s was
Ulf Lundell(1949–) who abandoned the grass root movement for rock 'n roll. In 1976, he broke through in literature with his debut novel "Jack", a beatniknovel that came to represent a whole generation. While critics were not impressed, the novel sold in great numbers and is still appreciated by many.see above]
Swedish literature has a considerable following in Finland, led by the Society of Swedish Literature in Finland, which describes itself as "a versatile and future-oriented cultural institution of Finland-Swedish literature, culture and research." The Society offers Finnish visitors an ideal forum for the exploration of shared leitmotifs such as snow. Apart from such activities, the Society is also a leading investor in the global equity and debt markets and a staunch defender of Finnish national interests, most recently against incursions by Swedish investors. This stance has caused some disquiet among Society members committed to the project of pan-Nordic literary appreciation.
Swedish writers awarded the
Nobel Prize in Literature, and the year it was awarded to them:
Selma Lagerlöf, 1909 — "In appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings" [" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1909/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ]
Verner von Heidenstam, 1916 — "In recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature" [" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1916/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ]
Erik Axel Karlfeldt, 1931 — "For the poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt". [" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1931/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ] The acceptance speech elaborates: " The Swede would say that we celebrate this poet because he represents our character with a style and a genuineness that we should like to be ours, and because he has sung with singular power and exquisite charm of the tradition of our people, of all the precious features which are the basis for our feeling for home and country in the shadow of the pine-covered mountains.". [" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1931/press.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931, Presentation Speech] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ]
Pär Lagerkvist, 1951 — "For the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind" [" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1951/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ]
Eyvind Johnson, 1974 (joint) — "For a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"" [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1974/index.html The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974] ", The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation, October 15,2006 ]
Harry Martinson, 1974 (joint) — "For writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"
Lists of important Swedish books
List of Swedish language writers
Notes and references
Please note that all page number references to "Gustafson" are made to the Swedish language edition of his book.
* Algulin, Ingemar, "A History of Swedish Literature", published by the
Swedish Institute, 1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X
* Gustafson, Alrik, "Svenska litteraturens historia", 2 volums (Stockholm, 1963). First published as "A History of Swedish Literature" (American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1961).
* Högg, Göran, "Den svenska litteraturhistorian" (Centraltryckeriet AB, Borås, 1996)
* Lönnroth, L., Delblanc S., Göransson, S. "Den svenska litteraturen" (ed.), 3 volumes (1999)
* Warburg, Karl, "Svensk Litteraturhistoria i Sammandrag" (1904), p.57 ( [http://runeberg.org/svlihist/ http://runeberg.org/svlihist/] Online link] , provided by
Project Runeberg). This book is rather old, but it was written for schools and is probably factually correct. However, its focal point differs from current-day books.
Nationalencyklopedin, article "svenska"
Swedish Institutewebsite, accessed October 172006
* Tigerstedt, E.N., "Svensk litteraturhistoria" (Tryckindustri AB, Solna, 1971)
* [http://runeberg.org Project Runeberg] a project that publishes freely available electronic versions of Nordic books.
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