List of law topics (N-R)


List of law topics (N-R)

__NOTOC__

Law [From Old English "lagu" "something laid down or fixed"; "legal" comes from Latin "legalis", from "lex" "law", "statute" ( [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=law&searchmode=none Law] , Online Etymology Dictionary; [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/legal Legal] , Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary)] is a system of rules usually enforced through a set of institutions. [Robertson, "Crimes against humanity", 90; see jurisprudence for extensive debate on what law is; H.L.A Hart argued law is a "system of rules" in his work "The Concept of Law" (Campbell, "The Contribution of Legal Studies", 184); John Austin said law was "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction" (Bix, [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/austin-john/#3 John Austin] ); Ronald Dworkin describes law as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice (Dworkin, "Law's Empire", 410); and Joseph Raz argues law is an "authority" to mediate people's interests (Raz, "The Authority of Law", 3–36).] Law-related topics include:

N

N.O.V. -- Name change -- Named plaintiffs -- Napoleonic code -- Narcotic -- National Insurance contributions -- National Labor Relations Board -- National trade union center -- Nationality -- Natural law -- Natural person -- "ne exeat" -- Necessary inference -- Necessary party -- Negative declaration -- Negative pledge -- Negative pregnant -- Negligence -- Negligence per se -- Negligent -- Negotiable instrument -- Negotiation -- "nemo dat quod non habet" -- nemo judex in sua causa -- Net -- Net estate -- Neutral country -- New matter -- Next friend -- Next of kin -- "nexus" -- Night and Fog prisoner -- "nihil" -- "nihil dicit" -- "nil" -- "nisi" -- "nisi prius" -- No contest -- No fault divorce -- No fault insurance -- No-par stock -- Noble Eightfold Path -- "nolle prosequi" -- "nolo contendere" -- Nominal damages -- Nominal party -- Nominal value -- Nominee -- Non -- "non compos mentis" -- "non constat" -- "non est factum" -- "non liquet" -- "non obstante verdicto" -- Non-binding arbitration -- Non-conforming use -- Non-contestability clause -- Non-contiguous -- Non-disclosure agreement -- Non-discretionary trust -- Non-executive director -- Non-feasance -- Non-profit corporation -- Non-profit organization -- Non-suit -- Nonimmigrant visa -- Nonviolence -- Not guilty -- Not guilty by reason of insanity -- Not-for-profit corporation -- "nota bene" -- Notary -- Notary public -- Note -- Notice -- Notice of appeal -- Notice of default -- Notice of issue -- Notice to quit -- Notorious possession -- Notwithstanding clause (Canadian Constitution) -- Novation -- Noxious -- Nugatory -- Nuisance -- "nulla bona" -- "nulla poena sine lege" -- Nullity (conflict) -- "nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali" -- "nunc pro tunc" -- Nuremberg Code -- Nuremberg Trials --

O

O.R. -- O.S.C. -- Oath -- "obiter dicta" is plural; see the singular "obiter dictum" -- Object -- Objection -- Objectivist philosophy -- Obligation -- Obligations of confidentiality -- Obligee -- Obligor -- Obscene -- Obscenity -- Obstruction of justice -- Occupancy -- Occupant -- Occupational disease -- Occupational hazard -- Occupy the field -- Of counsel -- Off calendar -- Offender -- Offense -- Offer -- Offer of proof -- Offeree -- Offeror -- Officer -- Officer of the court -- Officers of a corporation -- Official -- Official misconduct -- Official receiver -- Official Solicitor -- Officious intermeddler -- Offset -- Offshore corporation -- Ombudsman -- Omission -- Omnibus clause -- On all fours -- On demand -- On file -- On or about -- On or before -- On the merits -- On the stand -- "onus probandi" -- Open adoption -- Open court -- Open-source license -- Opening statement -- Operation of law -- "opinio juris sive necessitatis" -- Opinion -- Oppression remedy -- Optiondn -- Or -- Oral argument -- Oral contract -- Oral examination -- Oral law -- Order -- Order to show cause -- Order-in-Council -- Ordinance -- Ordinary -- Ordinary course of business -- Ordinary resolution -- Ordinary shares -- Organized crime -- Original jurisdiction -- Original sin -- Originating application -- Orphan -- "orse" -- Ostensible agent -- Ostensible authority -- Ouster -- Out of court -- Out-of-pocket expenses -- Outbuilding -- Outlaw -- Output contract -- Over-the-counter drug -- Overcharge -- Overrule -- Overt act -- Owe -- Own -- Own recognizance -- Owner -- Owner-occupier -- Ownership --

P

"pacta sunt servanda" -- Paid into court -- Pain and suffering -- Palimony -- Pander -- Panderer -- Panel -- Paper hanger -- "par delictum" -- Paralegal -- Paramount title -- Paraphilia -- Parcel -- Pardon -- "parens patriae" -- Parent -- Parent company -- Parental neglect -- Pari delicto -- Pari materia -- Pari passu -- Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property -- Parish -- Parliament -- Parliamentary procedure -- Parliamentary supremacy -- Parliamentary system -- Parody -- Parol -- Parol evidence rule -- Parole -- Parquet -- Partial -- Partial breach -- Partial disability -- Partial verdict -- Participate -- Particulars -- Partition -- Partly-paid -- Partner -- Partnership -- Party -- Party and party -- Party of the first part -- Party of the second part -- Party wall -- Passenger -- Passing off -- Passion -- Passive -- Patent -- Patent ambiguity -- Patent Cooperation Treaty -- Patent defect -- Patent infringement -- Patent pending -- Patentability -- Patently unreasonable -- Paternity -- Paternity suit -- Patient -- Patrimony -- Patrimony of affectation -- Patronage -- Pawn -- Pay -- Pay as you earn (paye) -- Payable -- Payable on demand -- Payee -- Payment in due course -- Payment in full -- Payor -- Peace bond -- Peaceable possession -- Peculation -- Pecuniary -- Pedophilia -- Peeping tom -- Peer group -- Peerage -- Peer review -- Penal -- Penal code -- Penal colony -- Penal law -- Penal notice -- Penal transportation -- Penalty -- Penalty phase -- Penance -- Pendent jurisdiction -- "pendente lite" -- Penitentiary -- Pension plan -- Pension scheme -- People -- People's Republic of China's trademark law -- "per" -- "per capita" -- "per curiam" -- "per diem" -- "per minas" -- "per pro" -- "per quod" -- "per se" -- "per stirpes" -- Peremptory -- Peremptory challenge -- Peremptory challenges -- Peremptory norm -- Peremptory writ of mandate -- Perfect -- Perfected -- Perfection (law) -- Perform -- Performance -- Perjurer -- Perjury -- Permanent Court of Arbitration -- Permanent disability -- Permanent injunction -- Permanent injury -- Permissive -- Permit -- Perpetuity -- Person -- Person having ordinary skill in the art -- "persona non grata" -- Personal application -- Personal effects -- Personal guardian -- Personal jurisdiction -- Personal property -- Personal recognizance -- Personal representative -- Personal service -- Personal services -- Personality rights -- Personalty -- Perversion -- Petit jury -- Petition -- Petition for probate -- Petition to make special -- Petitioner -- Petty larceny -- Petty offenses -- Philosophy of law -- Physical custody -- Physician-patient privilege -- Picketing -- Pierce the corporate veil -- Piercing the corporate veil -- Pilferage -- Pillory -- Pimp -- Pink slip -- Piracy -- Plagiarism -- Plain error -- Plain view doctrine -- Plaint note -- Plaint number -- Plaintiff -- Plaintiff's attorney -- Planting and seating -- Plc -- Plea -- Plea bargain -- Plea in abatement -- Plead -- Pleading -- Pleadings -- Pledge -- Plenary -- Plenary authority -- Police -- Police brutality -- Police court -- Police oppression -- Police powers -- Police state -- Corruption -- Political prisoner -- Political question -- Political science -- Poll -- Poll tax -- Polyandry -- Polygamy -- Bigamy -- Polygraph -- Pornography -- Port of entry -- Positive law -- Posse -- "posse comitatus" -- Possession -- Possession of stolen goods -- Possession proceedings -- Possessory -- Possessory interest -- Possibility of a reverter -- Post -- "post mortem" -- Postdated check -- Pot -- Pour over will -- Power -- Power of acceptance -- Power of appointment -- Power of arrest -- Power of attorney -- Practicable -- Practice -- Practice Direction -- Practice of law -- Praemunire -- "praetor peregrinus" -- Pray -- Prayer -- Pre-emption rights -- Precatory -- Precedent -- Predecease -- Preemption -- Preemption of state and local laws in the United States -- Preemptive right -- Preference -- Preferred creditor -- Preferred dividend -- Preferred stock -- Pregnant denial -- Preliminary hearing -- Preliminary injunction -- Premeditation -- Premises -- Premium -- Prenuptial agreement -- Preponderance of the evidence -- Prerogative writ -- Prescription -- Prescription drug -- Prescriptive easement -- Presentment -- President of the family division -- Presiding judge -- Presumption -- Presumption of innocence -- Pretermitted heir -- Pretrial discovery -- Prevailing party -- Price fixing -- "prima facie" -- Prima facie case -- Prima impressionis -- Prime suspect -- "primogeniture" -- -- Principal place of business -- Prior restraint -- Prior(s) -- Priority -- Prison -- Prisoner of war -- Privacy -- Private bill -- Private carrier -- Private company -- Private Express Statutes -- Private international law -- Private law -- Private nuisance -- Private parts -- Private property -- Private road -- Privateer -- Privilege -- Privilege against self incrimination -- Privileged communication -- Privileges and immunities -- Privity -- Privy Council -- Privy Council of Sweden -- "pro bono" -- "pro bono publico" -- "pro forma" -- "pro hac vice" -- "pro per" -- "" -- "pro se" -- "pro tanto" -- "pro tem" -- "pro tempore" -- Probable cause -- Probate -- Probation -- Probative -- Probative facts -- Probative value -- Procedendo -- Procedural defense -- Procedural justice -- Procedural law -- Procedure -- Proceeding -- Process -- Process server -- Proctor -- Product liability -- Professional corporation -- Professional negligence -- Proffer -- Prohibition -- Writ of prohibition -- Promise -- Promissory estoppel -- Promissory note -- Promoter -- Promotional stock -- Proper party -- Property -- Property damage -- Property guardian -- Property law -- Property tax -- "propria persona" -- Proprietary -- Proprietary interest -- Proprietary rights -- Proprietor -- Prosecute -- Prosecution -- Prosecutor -- Prospectus -- Prostitute -- Prostitution -- Protective custody -- Protective order -- Protest -- Protocol -- Prove up -- Provisional remedy -- Proviso -- Proximate cause -- Proxy -- Prudent man rule -- Public -- Public administrator -- Public benefit corporation -- Public charge -- Public company -- Public corporation -- Public defender -- Public domain -- Public easement -- Public figure -- Public limited company -- Public nuisance -- Public order -- Public property -- Public record -- Public trust doctrine -- Public trustee -- Public use -- Public utility -- Publication -- Publici juris -- Publish -- Puffing -- Puisne judge -- Punitive damages -- Putative -- Putative father --

Q

"quaeitur" -- "quaere" -- "quantum" -- "quantum meruit" -- Quash -- "quasi" -- Quasi community property -- Quasi contract -- Quasi corporation -- Quasi in rem -- Quasi-contract -- Quasi-criminal -- Quasi-delict -- Quasi-judicial -- Queen's bench -- Queen's Privy Council for Canada -- Queens bench division -- Queen's counsel -- Query -- Question of fact -- Question of law -- "qui tam action" -- "quid pro quo" -- "quid pro quo sexual harassment" -- Quiet enjoyment -- Quiet title action -- Quit -- Quitclaim deed -- Quitrent -- "quo warranto" -- "quod hoc" -- Quorum -- Quotient verdict -- Qur'an --

R

Rabbi -- Rabbinic literature -- Rabbinical Assembly -- Race to the courthouse -- Racial discrimination -- Racial segregation -- Racism -- Racketeer influenced corrupt organization (RICO) statute -- Racketeering -- Radical transparency -- Ransom -- Rape -- Ratable -- Ratification -- Ratify -- "ratio decidendi" -- "ratio scripta" -- Rational basis -- Re -- Ready, willing and able -- Ready-made company -- Real estate -- Real estate investment trust -- Real party in interest -- Real property -- Realty -- Reasonable -- Reasonable care -- Reasonable doubt -- Reasonable man doctrine -- Reasonable reliance -- Reasonable speed -- Reasonable time -- Reasonable wear and tear -- Rebate -- Rebbe -- "rebus sic stantibus" -- Rebuttable presumption -- Rebuttal -- Recapture -- Receipt -- Receivership -- Recess -- Recharacterisation -- Recidivist -- Reciprocal discovery -- Reciprocity -- Reckless -- Reckless disregard -- Reckless driving -- Recklessness -- Recognisance -- Reconstructionist Judaism -- Reconveyance -- Record -- Recorder -- Recording acts -- Records -- Recoupment -- Recourse -- Recover -- Recoverable -- Recovery -- Recusal -- Rectification (law) -- Recuse -- Redemption (bonds) -- Redemption of shares -- Redemption value -- Redetermination -- Redirect examination -- Redundancy -- Reentry -- Referee -- Referendum -- Reform Judaism -- Reformation -- Refresh one's memory -- Refugee -- Refundable tax credit -- Register -- Register of members -- Registered office -- Registered trade mark -- Registrar -- Registration statement -- Registry of deeds -- Regulation -- Regulations -- Regulatory taking -- Rehearing -- Reichstag Fire Decree -- Reid technique -- Rejection of claim -- Release -- Release on one's own recognizance -- Relevancy -- Relevant -- Reliance -- Reliction -- Relief -- Religion and heterosexuality -- Religion and homosexuality -- Religious law -- Remainder -- Remainderman -- Remand -- Remise -- Remittitur -- Remote -- Removal -- Renewal -- Rent -- Rent control -- Rent review -- Rental value -- Renunciation -- Reorganization -- Repair -- Repeal -- Repentance -- Replevin -- Reply brief -- Reports -- Repossess -- Represent -- Representation -- Representative -- Reprieve -- Reprisal -- Repudiation -- Reputation -- Reputed -- Request -- Requirements contract -- "res" -- "res adjudicata" -- "res gestae" -- "res ipsa loquitur" -- "res judicata" -- "res nulis" -- "res publica christiana" -- Resale -- Rescind -- Rescission -- Rescue doctrine -- Reservation -- Reserved decision -- Reserve fund -- Residence -- Resident -- Resident alien -- Residuary bequest -- Residuary estate -- Residuary legatee -- Residue -- Resistance movement -- Resisting arrest -- Resolution -- Resolution of disputes -- "respondeat superior" -- Respondent -- Responsa -- Responsibility -- Restatement of the law -- Restitution -- Restorative justice -- Restraining order -- Restraint of trade -- Restraint on alienation -- Restrictive covenant -- Restrictive endorsement -- Result -- Resulting trust -- Retainer -- Retaining lien -- Retention of title clause -- Retire -- Retraction -- Retrial -- Retributive justice -- Retroactive -- Return of service -- Revenue ruling -- Reversal -- Reversible error -- Reversion -- Revert -- Reverter -- Review -- Revival -- Revocable living trust -- Revocation -- Revoke -- RICO -- Rider -- Right -- Right of audience -- Right of eminent domain -- Right of survivorship -- Right of the first night -- Right-of-way -- Right to privacy -- Right to silence -- Right-to-work laws -- Rights -- Riot -- Riot control agent -- Riparian -- Riparian rights -- Ripe -- Risk -- Risk of loss -- Ritual -- Roadside test -- Robbery -- Robert's Rules of Order -- Rocket docket -- Rogatory letters -- Roman Forum -- Roman Inquisition -- Roman law -- Room -- Royal Assent -- Royal Charter -- Royal Commission -- Royal Courts of Justice -- Royal Prerogative -- Royal Warrant -- Royalty -- Rule -- Rule against perpetuities -- Rule by decree -- Rule in Allhusen v Whittell -- Rule in Re Atkinson -- Rule in Bartlett v Barclays Bank -- Rule in Clayton's Case -- Rule in Dearle v Hall -- Rule in Dumpor's Case -- Rule in Howe v Earl of Dartmouth -- Rule in Saunders v Vautier -- Rule in Shelley's Case -- Rule in Wild's Case -- Rule of law -- Rulemaking -- Rules of appellate procedure -- Rules of court -- Rules of evidence -- Ruling -- Rum-running -- Running at large -- Running with the land -- Ruse of war --

References


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