- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), also known as Pneumovax, is a
vaccineused to prevent " Streptococcus pneumoniae" (pneumococcus) infections such as pneumoniaand septicaemia.PPV is "not" the same vaccination as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV) that is routinely administered to infants in the US, Canada, and the UK. [ [http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/vaccines/691.html Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: What a Parent Needs to Know] - information from the American Academy of Family Physicianswebsite - FamilyDoctor.org. Gives statistics of pneumococcal diseaseincidence and the occurrence rates of various side effects.] See further under Children, below.
United Kingdom, PPV is recommended (as a part of routine vaccination schedules) for those over the age of 65, and also for both children and adults in special risk categories:
* Serious breathing problems
* Serious heart conditions
* Long term
Immunosuppressiondue to disease or treatment (e.g. chemotherapy or radio therapy, long-term steroid use, and problems with the spleen( asplenia), either because the spleen has been removed ( splenectomy) or does not work properly (for example, due to sickle cell disease).
The 23-valent vaccine (e.g.,
Pneumovax II) is only appropriate for adults and usually should only be administered once, as subsequent re-injection risks severe local reactions. The exception is where immunity may be lost at a faster rate than normal (e.g. patients with aspleniaor nephrotic syndrome) when repeated re-vaccination every 5-10 years is recommended.
Children under the age of two years fail to mount an adequate response to the 23-valent adult vaccine, and instead a 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine (PCV) (e.g.,
Prevnar) must be used. Whilst this covers only seven strains out of more than ninety strains, these seven strains cause 80% to 90% of cases of severe pneumococcal disease, and it is considered to be nearly 100% effective against these strains. [ [http://www.health.vic.gov.au/immunisation/factsheets/pneumo_child.htm Childhood Pneumococcal Disease] - information on the disease and the Prevnar vaccine, from the Victoria State (Australia) government. Includes possible side effects.]
;Special risk-group:Children at special risk (e.g. sickle cell disease and asplenia) require as full protection as can be achieved using the 7-valent congugated vaccine, with then the more extensive 23-valent vaccine given in the second year of life:
;Routine childhood vaccination programme:As of 4 September 2006, PCV is also included in the routine childhood vaccination programme for all children in the UK. In those children not at particular risk, PCV is given at 2, 4 and 13 months of age.cite web | title=Full immunisation schedule | url=http://www.immunisation.nhs.uk/article.php?id=97 | date=September 4, 2006 | publisher=NHS]
Notes and references
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine — Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Vaccine description Target disease Streptococcus pneumoniae Type Conjugate vaccine Clinical data AHFS/Drugs.com … Wikipedia
Vaccine — For other uses, see Vaccine (disambiguation). A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease causing microorganism, and is often made from… … Wikipedia
vaccine — Originally, the live v. (vaccinia, cowpox) virus inoculated in the skin as prophylaxis against smallpox and obtained from the skin of calves inoculated with seed virus. Usage has extended the meaning to include essentially any preparation… … Medical dictionary
pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent — (PPSV) a 23 valent vaccine containing capsular polysaccharide from the 23 most prevalent or invasive serovars of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which are responsible for about 90 per cent of pneumococcal disease in the United States. Administered… … Medical dictionary
List of vaccine topics — Flu vaccine This is a list of vaccine related topics. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease causing microorganism, and is often made… … Wikipedia
Meningococcal vaccine — Vaccine description Target disease Neisseria meningitidis Type ? Clinical data AHFS/Drugs.com … Wikipedia
Conjugate vaccine — A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide organism) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen … Wikipedia
Meningitis — Classification and external resources Meninges of the central nervous system: dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. ICD 10 G … Wikipedia
Streptococcus pneumoniae — S. pneumoniae in spinal fluid. FA stain (digitally colorized). Scientific classification Domain … Wikipedia
Vaccination schedule — A vaccination schedule is a series of vaccinations, including the timing of all doses, which may be either recommended or compulsory, depending on the country of residence. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to… … Wikipedia