- Romance verbs
Romance verbs refers to the
verbs of the Romance languages. In the transition from Latinto the Romance languages, verbs went through many phonetic, syntactic, and semantic changes. Most of the distinctions present in classical Latin continued to be made, but synthetic forms were often replaced with analytic ones. Other verb forms changed meaning, and new forms also appeared.
Comparison of conjugations
The following tables present a comparison of the conjugation of the regular verb "amare" "to love" in Classical Latin, and Vulgar Latin (reconstructed), and four modern Romance languages.
#The future indicative tense does not derive from the Latin form (which tended to be confounded with the preterite due to sound changes in Vulgar Latin), but rather from an infinitive + HABEO periphrasis, later reanalysed as a simple tense.
#Formally identical to the future perfect indicative except in the first person singular. The two paradigms merged in Vulgar Latin.
In spite of the remarkable continuity of form, several Latin tenses have changed meaning, especially subjunctives.
* The supine became a past participle in all Romance languages.
* The pluperfect indicative became a conditional in Catalan and Sicilian, and an imperfect subjunctive in Spanish.
* The pluperfect subjunctive developed into an imperfect subjunctive in all languages except Romansh, where it became a conditional, and Romanian, where it became a pluperfect indicative.
* The perfect subjunctive became a future subjunctive in Old Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician.
* The imperfect subjunctive became a personal
infinitivein Portuguese and Galician.WILLIAMS, E.B. "From Latin to Portuguese"]
In many cases, the empty cells in the tables above exist as distinct
compound verbs in the modern languages. Thus, the main tense and mood distinctions in classical Latin are still made in most modern Romance languages, though some are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs. Some examples, from Romanian:
* Perfect indicative: "am fost, ai fost, a fost, am fost ați fost, au fost";
* Future indicative: "voi fi, vei fi, va fi, vom fi, veți fi, vor fi";
* Future perfect indicative: "voi fi fost, vei fi fost, va fi fost, vom fi fost, veți fi fost, vor fi fost".
New forms also developed, such as the conditional, which in most Romance languages started out as a periphrasis, but later became a simple tense. In Romanian, the conditional is still periphrastic: "aș fi, ai fi, ar fi, am fi, ați fi, ar fi".
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Romance languages — Romance Geographic distribution: Originally Southern Europe and parts of Africa; now also Latin America, Canada, parts of Lebanon and much of Western Africa Linguistic classification: Indo European Italic … Wikipedia
Romance copula — The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be ) in all Romance languages largely derive from the Latin verbs esse to be (ultimately from Proto Indo European *h1es , as in English is); stāre to stand (ultimately from Proto Indo European… … Wikipedia
Romance languages — romance1 (def. 8). [1770 80] * * * Group of related languages derived from Latin, with nearly 920 million native speakers. The major Romance languages French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian are national languages. French is probably… … Universalium
Romance plurals — The La Spezia Rimini Line (or more precisely Massa Senigallia Line) demarcates some important distinctions between Romance languages north and west of it (Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, Occitan, French, Romansh, Cisalpine) and those east and south … Wikipedia
Classification of Romance languages — The internal classification of the Romance languages is a complex and sometimes controversial topic which may not have a unique answer. Several classifications have been proposed, based on different criteria. Romance Geographic distribution … Wikipedia
Spanish verbs — are one of the most complex areas of Spanish grammar. Spanish is a synthetic language with a moderate to high degree of inflection which shows up mostly in the verb conjugation.The Spanish verb system is separated into 14 distinct tenses (tense… … Wikipedia
Portuguese Irregular Verbs — is both the name of a book by Scottish author Alexander McCall Smith, and the name of a fictional book the seminal work on Romance philology and a lengthy book of some twelve hundred pages by the main character, Professor Dr Moritz Maria von… … Wikipedia
French verbs — are a complex area of French grammar, with a conjugation scheme that allows for three finite moods (with anywhere from two to five synthetic tenses), three non finite moods, three voices, and three grammatical aspects. Conjugation French verbs… … Wikipedia
Tigrinya verbs — In order to view the Tigrinya characters in this article, you will need a Unicode Ge ez font, such as GF Zemen Unicode. Unless otherwise indicated, Tigrinya verbs in this article are given in the usual citation form, the third person singular… … Wikipedia
Spanish irregular verbs — Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). While conjugation rules are relatively straightforward, a large number of verbs are irregular. Among … Wikipedia