Hanover


Hanover

Infobox German Location
Name = Hanover
German_name = Hannover
Art = City
image_photo = New town hall Hannover.jpg
imagesize =
image_caption = The New Town Hall in Hanover, built from 1901 to 1913.
Wappen = Coat_of_arms_of_Hannover.svg
lat_deg = 52 | lat_min = 22 | lat_sec = 0
lon_deg = 9 | lon_min = 43 | lon_sec = 0
Bundesland = Lower Saxony
Landkreis = Region Hanover
Höhe = 55
Fläche = 204.01
area_metro =
Einwohner = 522944
Stand = 2007-11-01
pop_ref = [cite web |url=http://www.nls.niedersachsen.de/Tabellen/Bevoelkerung/Bev_veraend_11_06.html |title=Bevölkerungsveränderungen in den kreisfreien Städten und Landkreisen im November 2006 |accessdate=2007-04-25 |language=German]
pop_metro = 1128543
PLZ = 30001 - 30669
Vorwahl = 0511
Kfz = H
Gemeindeschlüssel = 03 2 41 001
NUTS =
LOCODE = DE HAJ
Gliederung = 13 districts
Website = [http://www.hannover.de/ www.hannover.de]
Bürgermeister = Stephan Weil
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
Partei = SPD
ruling_party1 = SPD
ruling_party2 = Greens

Hanover(i) (Audio-de|Hannover|De-Hannover-pronunciation.ogg, IPA2|haˈnoːfɐ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ("Niedersachsen"), Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, in their dignities as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (which title was later called the Elector of Hanover at the end of the historical period known as Early Modern Europe). After the Napoleonic Wars ended, the Electorate was enlarged and made into the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover.

In addition to being the capital of Lower Saxony, Hanover was the capital of the administrative area "Regierungsbezirk Hannover" ("Hanover region") until Lower Saxony's administrative regions were disbanded at the beginning of 2005. It is, however, still part of the Hanover district ("Region Hannover"), which is a municipal body made up from the former district and city of Hanover.

With a population of 522,944 (1 February 2007) the city is a major center of northern Germany, known for hosting annual commercial expositions such as the Hanover Fair and the CeBIT. Every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest Marksmen's Fun Fair, and the Oktoberfest Hannover, which is the second largest Oktoberfest in the world. In 2000, Hanover hosted the world fair Expo 2000. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions especially for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover also has regional importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport, and its large zoo. The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways (Autobahnen), connecting European main lines in east-west-direction (Berlin - Ruhr area) and north-south-direction (Hamburg - Munich et al.).

History of Hanover

Founded in medieval times on the left (south) bank of the river Leine (the original name "Honovere" may be translated as "high bank", though this is debated), Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century as a natural crossroads. In a time of relatively difficult overland transportation, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river positioned it for increased trade and growth. Connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremerhaven via the Leine river from its place near the southern edge of the wide central German plains to its north and situated to the north and west of the Harz mountain barrier to the southeast it enjoyed a mountain skirting "crossroads" position in mule train dominated based east-west land traffic. Hanover essentially acted as a gateway to the Rhine, the Ruhr and Saar River valleys and their industrial areas to the southwest, for the plains regions both to its east and north, as well as overland traffic skirting the Hartz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.

In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three town gates to secure the city. With the coming of the beginnings of industrialization in Germany, trade in iron and silver from the northern Hartz mountains increased the city's importance.

In 1636, the Elector of Calenberg, the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, decided to move his residence to Hanover. His electorate was afterwards known as the Electorate of Hanover (see: House of Hanover). His descendants would later become monarchs of Great Britain (after 1801, monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). The first of them was George I, who ascended to the British throne in 1714. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were at the same time Electoral Princes of Hanover.

During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1714–1837), the monarch rarely visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers (1760–1837), there was only one short visit, by George IV, in 1821. Usually, a viceroy represented the monarch in Hanover.

During the Seven Years' War on July 26, 1757, the Battle of Hastenbeck took place near the city. The French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation.

Hanover in the 19th Century

. The capital town Hanover expanded to the western bank of the Leine and grew considerably since then.

In 1837, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended as William IV's heir in the United Kingdom was female (Queen Victoria), and according to Salic Law Hanover could only be inherited by males. Hanover passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus, as a consequence, and remained a kingdom until 1866, when Hanover, during the Austro-Prussian war, and despite having won the Battle of Langensalza against Prussia, was annexed by Prussia. The city of Hanover became the Prussian provincial capital. After the annexation, the people of Hanover opposed the Prussian regime.

However, for Hanoverian industry, the new connection to Prussia meant an improvement in the business environment. The introduction of free trade promoted economic growth, and also led in Hanover to the recovery of the Gründerzeit (founders era). In the period from 1871 to 1912 the population of Hanover grew from 87,600 to 313,400.

In 1872 the first horse railway was inaugurated, and from 1893 an electric tram was developed.

In 1887 Emile Berliner invented the record and the gramophone.

The upswing in Hanover started with the era of urban Director Heinrich Tramm. From 1891–1918 he was director of the city of Hanover, and fundamentally shaped the look of the city up to the turn of the century (The "Tramm Era"). The New Town Hall, the Trammplatz, is named after him.

In 1883 from the city of Hanover, the Hanover district government was created and became active.

The city was enlarged first in 1869, followed in 1882 by adding Königsworther Platz and the Welfengarten. In 1891 the municipalities of Herrenhausen, Hainholz, Vahrenwald were added and in 1907 the municipalities of Stöcken, Gutsbezirk Mecklenheide, Bothfeld, Klein-Buchholz, Groß-Buchholz, Kirchrode, Döhren and Wülfel were incorporated into Hanover

Hanover and the NSDAP

.

The Nazis took this act as a pretext for their November 1938 staged nationwide pogrom known as Kristallnacht. It was in Hanover on November 9, 1938 that the synagogue, designed in 1870 by Edwin Oppler in neo-romantic style, was burnt by the Nazis.

In September 1941 through the "Action Lauterbacher" plan, a ghettoisation of the remaining Hanoverian Jewish families began. Even before the Wannsee Conference, on December 15, 1941, the first Jews from Hanover were deported to Riga. A total of 2,400 people were deported, and very few survived. Of the approximately 4,800 Jews who had lived in Hannover 1938, less than 100 were still in the city when troops of the United States Army arrived on April 10, 1945 to occupy Hanover at the end of the war. Today, a memorial at the Opera Square is a reminder of the persecution of the Jews in Hanover.

Hanover during the Second World War

During the Second World War, Hanover was an important road junction. This and the well established arms industry were the main targets from 1940 of Allied air attacks. Important war holdings were in AFA in Stöcken, Deurag-Nerag in Misburg, Continental in Vahrenwald and Limmer, Hanomag and NMH in Linden and the United light metal works (VLW) in Ricklingen and Laatzen. The air attacks were directed not only against arms holdings and the railway lines, but also against residential areas. In the course of the war about 6,700 people were killed in the Allied bombing raids. Out of around 150,000 homes, only about 5% remained undamaged. After the war, the Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were kept as a memorial to the victims of war and tyranny.

Hanover was in the British zone of occupation of Germany after the war, and became part of the new state (Land) of Lower Saxony in 1946.

Today the City of Hanover is a Vice-President City of Mayors for Peace. The Mayor of Hiroshima is the President of Mayors for Peace, an international Mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020 [See Mayors for Peace 2020 Vision Campaign http://www.2020visioncampaign.org]

Subdivisions

Districts

#Mitte
#Vahrenwald-List
#Bothfeld-Vahrenheide
#Buchholz-Kleefeld
#Misburg-Anderten
#Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode
#Südstadt-Bult
#Döhren-Wülfel
#Ricklingen
#Linden-Limmer
#Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt
#Herrenhausen-Stöcken
#Nord

Quarters

*Nordstadt
*Südstadt
*Oststadt
*Zoo (for the zoo itself, see Hanover Zoo)
*Herrenhausen

Sights and places

One of the most famous sights is the "Royal Gardens of Herrenhausen":The "Great Garden" is an important European baroque garden. The palace itself, however, was largely destroyed by Allied bombing. Some points of interest are the "Grotto" (the interior was designed by the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle), the "Galery Building", the "Orangerie" and the two pavillons of Remy de la Fosse. The Great Garden consists of several parts. The most popular ones are the "Great Ground" and the "Neuveau Jardin". At the centre of the Neuveau Jardin is Europe's highest garden fountain. The historic "Garden Theatre" hosts the musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolf Kunze.

The "Berggarten" is an important European botanical garden. Some points of interest are the "Tropical House", the "Cactus House", the "Canary House" and the "Orchid House", which hosts one of the world's biggest collection of orchids, and free-flying birds and butterflies. Near the entrance to the Berggarten is the historic "Library Pavillon". The "Mausoleum" of the Guelphs is also located in the Berggarten. Like the Great Garden, the Berggarten also consists of several parts, for example the "Paradies" and the "Prairie Garden". There is also the "Sea Life Centre Hanover", which is the first tropical aquarium in Germany.

The "Georgengarten" is an English landscape garden. The "Leibniz Temple" and the "Georgen Palace" are two points of interest there.

Other gardens are the "Guelph Garden" with the "Guelph Palace" and the "Prince Garden". Nearby are the "Water Art", the "Hardenbergsche House" and the "Prince House".

The landmark of Hanover is the "New Town Hall" (Neues Rathaus). Inside the building are four scale models of the town and the only working diagonal elevator in Germany, which goes up the large dome.

The "Hanover Zoo" is one of the most spectacular and best zoos in Europe. The zoo received the Park Scout Award for the third year running in 2008, placing it among the best zoos in Germany. The zoo consists of several theme-areas: Sambesi, Meyers Farm, Gorilla-Mountain, Jungle-Palace, and Mullewapp. Some smaller areas are Australia, the wooded area for wolves, and the so-called swimming area with many seabirds. There is also a tropical house, a jungle house, and a show arena. The new Alaska-themed area, Yukon Bay, is still under construction.

Another point of interest is the "Old Town". At the centre is the huge "Market Church" and the "Old Town Hall". Near by are the "Leibniz House", the "Nolte House", and the "Beguine Tower". A very nice quarter of the Old Town is the "Kreuz-Church-Quarter" around the "Kreuz Church" with many nice little lanes. Nearby is the old theatre, called "Ballhofeins". On the edge of the Old Town are the "Market Hall", the "Leine Palace", and the ruin of the "Aegidien Church" which is now a monument to the victims of war and violence. Through the "Marstall Gate" you arrive at the bank of the river "Leine", where the world-famous "Nanas" of Niki de Saint-Phalle are located. They are part of the "Mile of Sculpture" which leads from the Königsworter Square up to the entrance of the Georgengarten. Near the Old Town is the district Calenberger Neustadt where the Catholic church of "St. Clemens", the "Reformed Church", and the Protestant "Neustädter Church" are located.

Some other popular sights are the "Waterloo Column", the "Laves House", the "Wangenhaim Palace", the "Lower Saxony State Archives", the "Hanover Playhouse", the "Kröpcke Clock", the "Anzeiger Tower Block", the "Administration Building of the NORD/LB", the "Cupola Hall" of the Congress Centre, the "Lower Saxony Stock", the "Ministry of Finance", the "Garten Church", the "Luther Church", the "Gehry Tower" (designed by the American architect Frank O. Gehry), the specially designed "Bus Stops", the "Opera House", "the Central Station", the "Maschsee" lake and the city forest "Eilenriede", which is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. Due to its around 40 parks, forests and gardens, a couple of lakes, two rivers and one canal, Hanover offers a large variety of leisure activities.

Since 2007 the historic "Leibniz Letters", which can be visited in the "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library", are an UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Outside of the city centre is the "EXPO-Park". Some points of interests are the "Planet M.", the former "German Pavillon", the "Yempa Event-Palace", the "Expowale", the "EXPO-Plaza" and the "EXPO-Gardens" (Parc Agricole, EXPO-Park South and the Gardens of change). Via the "Exponale", which is one of the largest pedestrianbridges in Europe, the fairground is reachable. The "Hanover fairground" is the largest in the world. Two important sights on the fairground are the "Hermes Tower" (88.8 metres high) and the "EXPO Roof", which is the largest woodroof in the world.

In the district of Anderten is the "European Cheese Centre", which is the only Cheese-Experience-Centre in Europe. Nearby is also Hanovers large funpark, the "CAMPO Aktiv-Arena". It is the largest sports- and leisure facility in Northern Germany with around 60 attractions. Another important sight in Anderten is the "Hindenburg Lock", which was the biggest lock in Europe at the time of construction in 1928. The "Animalgarden" in the district of Kirchrode is a huge forest and shows the local animals.

In the district of Groß-Buchholz is the "Telemax", the tallest building in Lower Saxony and one of the highest television towers in Northern Germany. Some other remarkable towers are the "VW-Tower" and the old towers of the former mid-age defence belt: "Döhrener Tower", "Lister Tower" and the "Horse Tower".

The 36 most important sights of the city centre are connected with a convert|4.2|km|mi|0 long red line, which is painted on the pavement. This so-called "Red Thread" marks out a walk that starts at the Tourist Information Office and ends on the Ernst-August-Square in front of the central station. There is also a guided sightseeing-bus tour through the city.

Society and Culture

Museums and Galleries

The "Historic Museum" describes the history of Hanover, from the medieval settlement "honovere" to the world-famous Exhibition City of today. The museum focuses on the period from 1714 to 1834 when Hanover had a strong relationship with the British royal house. The "Kestnergesellschaft" belongs with more than 4,000 members to the largest art society in Germany. The museum hosts exhibitions from classical modernist art to contemporary art. One big focus is put on film, video, contemporary music and architecture, room installments and big presentations of contemporary paintings, sculptures and video art.

The "Kestner Museum" is located in the "House of 5.000 windows". The museum is named after August Kestner and exhibits 6,000 years of applied art in four areas: Ancient cultures, ancient Egypt, applied art and a valuable collection of historic coins.

The "KUBUS" is a forum for contemporary art. It features mostly exhibitions and projects of famous and important artists from Hanover.

The "Kunstverein Hannover" (Art Society Hanover) was established in 1832 as one of the first art societies in Germany. It is located in the "Künstlerhaus" (House of artists). There are around 7 international monografic and thematic Exhibitions in one year.

The "Lower Saxony State Museum" is the largest museum in Hanover. The "State Gallery" shows the European Art from the 11th to the 20th century, the "Nature Department" shows the zoology, geology, botanic, geology and a "Vivarium" with fishes, insects, reptiles and amphibians. The "Primeval Department" shows the primeval history of Lower Saxony and the "Folklore Department" shows the cultures from all over the world.

The "Sprengel Museum" shows the art of the 20th century. It is one of the most notable art museums in Germany. The focus is put on the classical modernist art with the collection of "Kurt Schwitters", works of the German expressionism, and the French cubism, the cabinet of abstracts, the graphics and the department of photography and media. Furthermore the museum shows the famous works of the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle.

The "Theatre Museum" shows an exhibition of the history of the theatre in Hanover from the 17th century up to now: opera, concert, drama and ballet. The museum also hosts several touring exhibitions during the year.

The "Wilhelm-Busch-Museum" is the "German museum for caricature and critical graphics". The collection of the works of Wilhelm Busch and the extensive collection of caricatures and critical graphics is this museum unique in Germany. Furthermore the museum hosts several exhibitions of national and international artists during the year.

A cabinet of coins is the "Münzkabinett der TUI-AG". The "Polizeigeschichtliche Sammlung Niedersachsen" is the largest police museum in Germany. Textiles from all over the world can be visited in the "Museum for textile art". The "EXPOseeum" is the museum of the world-exhibition "EXPO 2000 Hannover". Carpets and things from the orient can be visited in the "Oriental Carpet Museum". The "Blind Man Museum" is a rarity in Germany, another one is only in Berlin. The "Museum of veterinary medicine" is unique in Germany. The "Museum for Energy History" describes the 150 years old history of the application of energy. The "Home Museum Ahlem" shows the history of the district of Ahlem. The "Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ahlem" describes the history of the Jewish people in Hanover and the "Stiftung Ahlers Pro Arte / Kestner Pro Arte" shows modern art. Modern art is also the maintopic of the "Kunsthalle Faust", the "Nord/LB Art Gellery" and of the "Foro Artistico / Eisfabrik". Some leading art events in Hanover are the "Long Night of the museums" and the "Zinnober Kunstvolkslauf" which features all the galleries in Hanover.

People who are interested in space should visit the "Observatory Geschwister Herrschel" on the Lindener Mountain or the small planetarium inside of the Bismarck School.

Theatre, Cabaret and Musical

Around 40 theatres are located in Hanover. The "Opera House", the "Schauspielhaus" (Play House), the "Ballhofeins", the "Ballhofzwei" and the "Cumbarlandsche Galerie" belong to the "Lower Saxony State Theatre". The "Theater am Aegi" is Hanovers big theatre for musicals, shows and guest performances. The "Neues Theater" (New Theatre) is the Boulevard Theatre of Hanover. The "Theater für Niedersachsen" is another big theatre in Hanover, which also has an own Musical-Company. Some 0f the must important Musical-Productions are the rockmusicals of the German rockmusician Heinz Rudolph Kunze, which take place at the "Garden-Theatre" in the Great Garden.

Some important theatre-events are the "Tanztheater International", the "Long Night of the Theatres", the "Festival Theaterformen" and the "International Competition for Choreographs".

Hanovers leading cabaret-stage is the "GOP Variety theatre" which is located in the "Georgs Palace". Some other famous cabaret-stages are the "Variety Marlene", the "Uhu-Theatre". the theatre "Die Hinterbühne", the "Rampenlich Variety" and the revue-stage "TAK". The most important Cabaret-Event is the "Kleines Fest im Großen Garten" (Little Festival in the Great Garden) which is the most successful Cabaret Festival in Germany. It features artists from around the world. Some other important events are the "Calenberger Cabaret Weeks", the "Hanover Cabaret Festival" and the "Wintervariety".

Music

has his main recording studio in the area.

There are/were two big international competitions for classical music in Hanover:
* [http://www.stnds.de/en/programme_projekte/programme/violin_wettbewerb/index.html Joseph Joachim International Violin Competition] (since 1991)
* [http://brainin.org/ClassicaNova/Englisch.html Classica Nova International Music Competition] (1997) (Non profit association Classica Nova exists in Hanover with the aim to continue the Classica Nova competition).

Sport

Hannover 96 (nickname "Die Roten" or 'The Reds') is Hanover's football team that plays in the Bundesliga top division. Home games are played at the AWD-Arena. "Hannover 96 II" plays in the fourth league and the home games are played in the traditional "Eilenriedestadium". "Arminia Hannover" is another very traditional soccer team in Hanover that has played in the first league for years and plays now in the "Niedersachsen-West Liga" (Lower Saxony League West). Home matches are played in the "Rudolf-Kalweit-Stadium".

". The "Hannover Indians" are the second ice hockey team in Hanover. Even though the Hanover Indians are in the fourth league usually more people come to matches at the "Pferde Turm" than to matches of the "Hannover Scorpions".

Hanover is also one of the Rugby union capitals in Germany. The first German Rugby team was founded in Hanover in 1878. Hanover is one of the leading towns in the German Rugby scene. "DRC Hannover" plays in the first division, and "SV Odin von 1905" as well as "SG 78/08 Hannover" play in the second division.

The first German Fencing Club was founded in Hanover in 1862. Today there are three more Fencing Clubs in Hanover.

Hanover is a centre for Water Sports. Thanks to the lake "Maschsee", the rivers "Ihme" and "Leine" and to the channel "Mittellandkanal" Hanover hosts sailing schools, yacht schools, waterski clubs, rowing clubs, canoe clubs and paddle clubs. The water polo team "WASPO W98" plays in the first division.

The "Hannover Regents" play in the first German Baseball division.

Important Sport Events

The "Hannover Marathon" is the biggest running event in Hanover with more than 11.000 participants and usually around 200.000 spectators. Some other important running events are the "Gilde Stadtstaffel" (relay), the "Sport-Check Nachtlauf" (night-running), the "Herrenhäuser Team-Challenge", the "Hannoversche Firmenlauf" (company running) and the "Silvesterlauf" (sylvester running).

Hanover hosts also an important international cycle race: The "Nacht von Hannover" (night of Hanover). The race takes place around the Market Hall.

The lake "Maschsee" hosts the "International Dragon Boat Races" and the "Canoe-Polo-Tournament". Many regattas take place during the year. "Head of the river Leine" on the river "Leine" is one of the biggest rowing regattas in Hanover.

Some other important sport events are the "Lower Saxony Beach Volleyball Tournament", the international horse show "German Classics" and the international ice hockey tournament "Nations Cup".

Regular Events

", the "Hanover Fair", the "Domotex", the "Ligna", the "IAA Nutzfahrzeuge" and the "Agritechnica". Hanover also hosts a huge number of congresses.

But Hanover is not only one of the most important Exhibition Cities in the world, Hanover is also one of the German capitals for the marksmen. The "Schützenfest Hannover" is the largest Marksmen's Fun Fair in the world and takes place once a year. It consists of more than 260 rides and inns, five large beer tents and a big entertainment program. The highlight of this fun fair is the convert|12|km|mi|0 long "Parade of the Marksmen" with more than 12.000 participants from all over the world, among them around 5.000 marksmen, 128 bands and more than 70 wagons, carriages and big festival vehicles. It is the longest procession in Europe. Around 2 million people visit this fun fair every year. The landmark of this Fun Fair is the biggest transportable Ferris Wheel in the world (convert|60|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=/ high). The origins of this fun fair is located in the year 1529.

Hanover also hosts one of the two largest Spring Festivals in Europe with around 180 rides and inns, 2 large beer tents and around 1.5 million visitors each year. The Oktoberfest Hannover is the second largest Oktoberfest in the world with around 160 rides and inns, two large beer tents and around 1 million visitors each year.

The "Maschsee Festival" takes place around the Maschsee Lake. Each year around 2 million visitors want to enjoy live music, comedy, cabaret and many more. It is the largest Volksfest of its kind in Northern Germany.

The Great Garden hosts every year the "International Fireworks Competition", and the "International Festival Weeks Herrenhausen" with lots of music and cabaret.

The "Carnival Procession" is around convert|3|km|mi|0 long and consists of 3.000 participants, around 30 festival vehicles and around 20 bands and takes place every year.

Some more festivals are for example the Festival "Feuer und Flamme" (Fire and Flames), the "Gartenfestival" (Garden Festival), the "Herbstfestival" (Autumn Festival), the "Harley Days", the "Steintor Festival" (Steintor is a party area in the city centre) and the "Lister-Meile-Festival" (Lister Meile is a large pedestrian area).

Hanover also hosts Food Festivals, for example the "Wine Festival" and the "Gourmet Festival".

Furthermore Hanover hosts some special markets. The "Old Town Flea Market" is the oldest flea market in Germany Fact|date=March 2008and the "Market for Art and Trade" has a high reputation. Some other big market is of course the "Christmas Market Hanover" in the Old Town.

Transport

Rail

The city's central station, Hannover Hauptbahnhof, is a hub of vital importance in the German high-speed ICE network. It is the starting point of the Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line and the central hub for the Hanover S-Bahn, offering international and national connections to virtually everywhere in Germany.

Air

Hanover and its area is served by Hanover/Langenhagen International Airport (HAJ)

Road

Hanover is an important hub in Germany's Autobahn network; the interchange of two major autobahns, the A2 and A7 is at "Kreuz Hannover-Ost", at the northeastern edge of the city.Local autobahns are A 352 (a bypass between A7 and A2, also known as the "airport autobahn" because it runs close to "Hanover Airport") and the A 37. The Schnellweg "(en: expressway)" system, a number of Bundesstraße roads, forms a structure loosely resembling a large ring road together with A2 and A7. The roads are B 3 , B 6 and B 65, called Westschnellweg (B6 on the northern part, B3 on the southern part), Messeschnellweg (B3, becomes A37 near Burgdorf, crosses A2, becomes B3 again, changes to B6 at "Seelhorster Kreuz", then passes the Hanover fairground as B6 and becomes A37 again before merging into A7) and Südschnellweg (starts out as B65, becomes B3/B6/B65 upon crossing "Westschnellweg", then becomes B65 again at "Seelhorster Kreuz").

Bus and Light rail

[
Hanover (upper center) is near the center of northern Germany, west of Potsdam and Berlin, south of Hamburg, and northeast of Dortmund and Cologne.]

Hanover has an extensive Stadtbahn system, traditionally operated by üstra. The city is famous for its designer buses and tramways, the TW 6000 and TW 2000 trams being the most well-known examples.

Economy

The Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Transporter factory at Hannover-Stöcken is the biggest employer in the region. German tire and automobile parts manufacturer Continental AG has its headquarters in Hanover.

Education

The Leibniz University Hannover is the largest funded institution in Hanover for providing higher education to the students from around the world. Below are name of universities and some of the important schools including newly opened Hannover Medical Research School in 2003 for attracting the students from biology background from around the world.

There are several universities in Hanover:
* Leibniz University Hannover
* Hanover Conservatory [http://www.hmt-hannover.de]
* Hanover Medical School [http://www.mh-hannover.de]
* School of Veterinary Medicine HanoverThere is one University of Applied Science and Arts in Hanover:
* Fachhochschule Hannover [http://www.fh-hannover.de]

Towns named after Hanover


* Hanover, Ontario, Canada
* Hanover, Northern Cape, South Africa
* Hanover, Brighton, UK
* New Hanover, Illinois, U.S.
* Hanover, Kansas, U.S.
* Hanover, Maine, U.S.
* Hanover, Maryland, U.S.
* Hanover, Massachusetts, U.S.
* Hanover, Minnesota, U.S.
* Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.
* Hanover, New Mexico, U.S.
* Hanover, Pennsylvania, U.S.
* Hanover, Virginia, U.S.

Also, Hanover County, Virginia and New Hanover County, North Carolina, U.S. are named after the city.

Twin cities

Definitions

Note: Hanover is the correct English spelling, even though the German spelling is with a double n. It should always be used when referring to the British House of Hanover (even if one chooses to write the city the German way).

See also

* Expo 2000
* Hanover Fair (Hannover Messe)
* CeBIT (CeBIT Computer Messe)
* Oktoberfest Hannover
* Treaty of Hanover among Britain, France, and Prussia on May 19, 1727

Notable Residents


* Hannah Arendt, of Jewish origin, political theorist and philosopher
* Rudolf Augstein, one of the most influential German journalists, founder of Der Spiegel
* Leopold Auer, of Jewish origin, violinist and violin teacher
* Uri Avnery, of Jewish origin, journalist
* Elly Beinhorn, one of the first long distance aviators
* Emile Berliner, of Jewish origin, inventor, best known for developing the disc record gramophone
* Justus Henning Boehmer, ecclesiastical jurist, count palatine of the Duchy of Magdeburg
* Valeri Brainin, of Jewish origin, musicologist and poet
* Wilhelm Busch, painter and poet
* Mathieu Carrière, actor
* Carl Dahlhaus, musicologist
* Doris Dörrie, movie director, producer, and author
* Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart, botanist, a pupil of Carolus Linnaeus
* Yvonne Georgi, dancer, choreographer and ballet mistress
* Boris Goldstein, of Jewish origin, famous violinist
* Georg Goltermann, cellist and composer
* August Grisebach, botanist, founder of phytogeography as a branch of science
* George Frideric Handel, composer
* William Herschel, astronomer
* Caroline Herschel, astronomer
* Ludwig Heinrich Christoph Hölty, poet
* August Wilhelm Iffland, actor and playwright
* Karl Jatho, first aviator, who flew with motored airplane
* Joseph Joachim, of Jewish origin, violinist, conductor, composer, and teacher
* Karl Karmarsch, educator
* Friedrich Kaulbach, painter
* Vladimir Krainev, of Jewish origin, pianist and piano teacher
* Louis Kugelmann, social democratic thinker and activist, confidant of Marx and Engels
* Gottfried Leibniz, polymath, mathematician, philosopher
* Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort, a member of the July 20 Plot against Adolf Hitler.
* Theodor Lessing, of Jewish origin, philosopher
* Heinrich Marschner, composer
* Otto Fritz Meyerhof, of Jewish origin, physician and biochemist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine
* Karl Philipp Moritz, author, editor, and essayist of the Sturm und Drang
* Rudolf Erich Raspe, librarian, writer, and scientist
* Dieter Roth, printmaker and mixed-media artist
* Otto Sander, movie, theater, and voice actor
* Georg Sauerwein, publisher, poet, linguist, and polyglot (about 60 languages)
* August Wilhelm Schlegel, poet, translator, critic, and a foremost leader of German Romanticism
* Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, poet, critic and scholar
* Maria Schrader, movie actress
* Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005
* Heinrich Schütz, composer and organist
* Reinhard Schwarz-Schilling, componist
* Kurt Schwitters, painter and poet, representer of Dadaism, Constructivism, and Surrealism
* The Scorpions, rock band
* Berthold Carl Seemann, botanist
* Bernhard Sprengel, chocolate manufacturer and modern art collector
* Count Alfred von Waldersee, Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1888 to 1891
* Frank Wedekind, dramatist
* Grethe Weiser, actress
* Kai Wiesinger, movie actor
* Mary Wigman, dancer, choreographer, and instructor of dance
*Ricardo Wolf, of Jewish origin, inventor, diplomat, philanthropist, the founder of the Wolf Foundation

References

External links

*
* [http://www.hannover.de/ City's own website]
* [http://www.niedersachsen-tourism.com/ Official website for tourism, holiday and leisure in Lower Saxony and Hanover]
*de icon [http://www.exposeeum.de/ EXPOseeum] - see what is left from Expo 2000
*en icon de icon [http://public-transport.net/bim/Hannover.htm tram in Hanover]
* http://www.mh-hannover.de/hbrs.html
* [http://www.sv-odin.de/ SV Odin von 1905 website]


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