- Grumman American AA-1
caption= American Aviation AA-1 Yankee Clipper
type=Sport, personal and
first flight= July 11th, 1963 as
unit cost=US$6,495 in 1969
variants with their own articles=AA-5 series
The Grumman American AA-1 series is a family of light, 2-seat
aircraft. The family includes the original American Aviation AA-1 Yankee Clipper and AA-1A Trainer, the Grumman American AA-1B Trainer and TR-2 and the Gulfstream American AA-1C Lynx and T-Cat.cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/cgrcc/aa1.html |title = Gulfstream Yankee/Trainer AA-1 |year = 1989 |author = Aviation Consumer |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ]
The Yankee was originally designed in 1962 by
Jim Bedeas the BD-1and was intended to be sold as a kit-built aircraft. Bede decided to certify the design under the then-new FARPart 23 rules and offer it as a completed aircraft. No BD-1 kits were ever sold.cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/specific/bd-1pirep.html |title = BEDE BD-1 |year = 1965 |author = Flying Annual & Pilots' Guide |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ] cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/ |title = The Grumman Yankee - Fighter Fun - Trainer Price! |year = 1996 |author = Scott Smith |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ] cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/grumman-whereitallbegan.html |title = GrummanWhere It All Began |year = 1997 |author = Skip Stagg |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ] cite web |url = http://www.aviationconsumer.com/sample/planereviews.html |title = AGAC AA-1 |date = undated |author = AviationConsumer |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ] cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/trustytrainer.html |title = Trusty Trainer |year = 1997 |author = Bill Cox |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ]
The prototype first flew on July 11, 1963 and featured folding wings for trailering and ease of storage. Bede formed a company, Bede Aviation Corporation, based in
Cleveland Ohio, to produce the aircraft, but the BD-1 never entered production as a certified aircraft. At that time the FAA was hesitant to certify a light aircraft with folding wings. The certification process was complex and expensive and disagreements arose between Bede and the other shareholders. As a result Bede was ousted by his business partners and the company renamed American Aviation.
AA-1 Yankee Clipper
American's engineers reworked the wing to a non-folding design, easing FAR Part 23 certification. Other changes included adding extended
wing tips to improve rate-of-climb, an anti-servo tab on the elevator along with a centering spring system to increase longitudinal stability and stall stripsto improve handling during a stall. The company designated the redesigned aircraft the AA-1 Yankee Clipper.
The AA-1 was certified under FAR Part 23 on August 29, 1967 with the first production AA-1 flying on May 30, 1968. The first 1969 models were delivered in the fall of 1968 at a base price of US$6495, notably lower than competitive aircraft types cost at that time. American Aviation built 459 examples of the AA-1 Yankee Clipper between 1969 and 1971 at their factory in Cleveland, Ohio.
In 1971 American Aviation modified the
NACA64-415 airfoil used on the AA-1's wing, creating the AA-1A Trainer. The recontoured leading edge produced softer stall characteristics and permitted lower approach speeds. While this did tame the AA-1's sharp stall, it also reduced the cruise speed compared to the original AA-1 by 10 mph. First flight was on March 25, 1970 and 470 AA-1As were built in 1971-72.
AA-1B Trainer and TR-2
Grummanbought American in 1971 and sold the design as the Grumman American AA-1B Trainer for school use starting in 1973. The variant designed for the personal-use market was called the TR-2 and it featured a standard radio and trim package. The AA-1B was produced until 1976. 680 AA-1Bs were produced.
AA-1C Lynx and T-Cat
The Grumman light aircraft line was then acquired by
Gulfstream Aerospacein 1977 who formed it into their light aircraft division, Gulfstream American. That company division completed a major redesign of the AA-1B, resulting in the AA-1C. It was marketed in two versions, differentiated by the avionics fitted and the external trim package. The Lynx was targeted at private owners while the T-Cat was the flying school trainer. These names were chosen to position the aircraft in the Gulfstream American line which, at that time featured the Cheetah, Tiger and the Cougar.
The AA-1C received a new larger horizontal tail and other significant improvements, including a 115 hp Lycoming O-235-L2C high-compression engine designed for 100LL fuel, which brought the cruise speed back up to that of the original 108 hp Yankee. 211 AA-1Cs were produced in 1977 and 1978.
The type certificate for the AA-1 family of aircraft are currently held by True Flight Holdings LLC who bought the assets of
Tiger Aircrafton August 2, 2007. ["An Open Letter to the AYA" By Kevin Lancaster, The American Star, The Official Publication of the American Yankee Association, Volume XXXII Number 5, September/October 2007 pg 4]
All models of the AA-1 accommodate two people in side-by-side seating under a sliding canopy and are noted for their exceptionally light handling. The Yankee and its 4-seater siblings, the AA-5 series, feature a unique bonded
aluminumhoneycomb wingand fuselagethat eliminates the need for rivets without sacrificing strength. The wide-track main landing gear struts are laminated fiberglassfor shock absorption, and was marketed as the "Face Saver" design by American Aviation.cite book|title=The American Trainer Owner's Manual|author=American Aviation Corporation|pages=p 10|year=1970|id=AA1A-137-3] cite web |url = http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/askaman.html |title = Ask a Man Who Owns One |year = 1997 |author = Skip Stagg |accessdate = 2007-11-03 ]
The Yankee was originally designed to minimize the number of airframe parts used, with the aim of simplifying production and saving money. As a result of this philosophy many parts were interchangeable. Due to the use of a non-tapered tubular spar, which doubled as the fuel tank, and the lack of wing washout, the wings could be exchanged left and right. The fin and horizontal stabilizers were interchangeable, as were the rudder and the elevators. The ailerons and flaps were similarly the same part. While it did succeed in making production easier, this design philosophy produced many aerodynamic compromises in the design. For instance, because the flaps were the same part as the ailerons they were too small to be effective as flaps. The lack of wing washout, necessitated by the wing interchangeability requirement, meant that
stall stripshad to be installed to produce acceptable stall characteristics for certification. Over time this philosophy of compromising the aerodynamics in favour of a minimized parts count was abandoned. For example, the redesign of the AA-1B into the AA-1C by Gulfstream involved wider-span elevators and horizontal stabilizers that produced better longitudinal stability, but were no longer interchangeable with the rudder and fin.
The original American Aviation AA-1 Yankee developed a poor reputation for safety in its first years of production (1969-71). The aircraft was designed purely to fill the role of a personal transportation and touring aircraft and not a trainer, but many of the early production models were purchased by flying schools. The appeal of the AA-1 to schools was obvious - compared to the competition, the AA-1 was faster, cost less to purchase and maintain and, most importantly, had more student-appeal with its sliding canopy and fighter-like looks.
Many of the early school accidents were related to spin-training. Once the AA-1 entered a fully developed spin and exceeded three turns, it was usually not recoverable. The AA-1 had been spin-tested as part of its certification, but in 1973 the FAA issued
Airworthiness Directive73-13-07 ordering the aircraft placarded against spins.
The remaining accidents were generally attributed to the AA-1's short endurance (3.3 hours), inability to use short grass strips and high approach speeds (85-90 mph). These were all different from the other school aircraft in use in that era and took some adaptation by instructors and students alike.
Today most of the AA-1s, AA-1As, Bs and Cs are in private hands. If the pilot is properly trained on the aircraft and stays within its limitations, data shows that it is as safe as any other light aircraft.
Some AA-1s have had their original engines replaced with larger 150 or 160 hp engines that further increase performance. Other popular modifications include the addition of a dorsal strake on earlier model AA-1s to improve yaw stability or the addition of a clear red rudder cap to fair the flashing beacon for reduced drag. Some AA-1 have been converted to
The AA-1 family of aircraft along with the other American Aviation, Grumman American and Gulfstream American single and twin-engined aircraft are supported by an active aircraft type club, The American Yankee Association, supplemented by an on-line community, The Grumman-Gang.
;AA-1 Yankee:1968 - Production version developed from the Bede BD-1 with a 115hp Lycoming O-235-C2C engine, 461 built.;AA-1A Trainer:1971 - Dual-control trainer version with modified wing aerofoil, 470 built.;AA-1B Trainer/Tr-2:1972 - Development of the AA-1A with an increase in useful load, also sold as the "Tr-2" touring model, 680 built.;AA-1C T-Cat/Lynx:1976 - AA-1B with a 115hp Lycoming O-235-L2C engine, AA-5 elevators and modified engine mount, marketed as the T-Cat as trainer replacement for the "Trainer" and as the "Lynx" tourer to replace the "Tr-2", 211 built.
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=The American Trainer Owner's Manual
length main= 19.24 ft
length alt= 5.87 m
span main= 24.46 ft
span alt= 7.46 m
height main= 6.80 ft
height alt= 2.07 m
area main= 98 ft²
area alt= 9.11 m²
empty weight main= 1,018 lb
empty weight alt= 461 kg
max takeoff weight main= 1,500 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 680 kg
type of prop=
number of props=1
power main=108 hp
power alt=80.6 kW
max speed main= 138 mph
max speed alt= 222 km/h
cruise speed main= 125 mph
cruise speed alt= 201 km/h
stall speed main= 60 mph
stall speed alt= 97 km/h
never exceed speed main= 195 mph
never exceed speed alt= 314 km/h
range main=488 mi
range alt= 785 km
range more=at 8,000 ft (2,438 m)
ceiling main= 13,750 ft
ceiling alt= 4,191 m
climb rate main= 765 ft/min
climb rate alt= 3.89 m/s
loading main= 14.9 lb/ft²
loading alt= 72.75 kg/m²
power/mass main=13.9 lb/hp
power/mass alt=8.42 kg/kW
* [http://www.grumman.net/specific/bd-1pirep.html BD-1 Pilot Evaluation Report from 1965]
* [http://www.grumman.net/gallery/BD-1SalesBrochure BD-1 Sales brochure and pictures]
* [http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/askaman.html Stagg, Skip, Article - "Ask a Man Who Owns One", Private Pilot Magazine(1997)]
* [http://www.grumman.net/cgrcc/aa1.html Article - "Gulfstream Yankee/Trainer AA-1", Aviation Consumer Used Airplane Guide (1989)]
* [http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/ Smith, Scott, Article "The Grumman Yankee Fighter Fun - Trainer Price!" USAviator, Airedale Press Inc., 3000 21st St-NW, Winter Haven, FL, 33881]
* [http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/grumman-whereitallbegan.html Stagg, Skip, Article - "Grumman Where It All Began", Private Pilot Magazine (1997)]
* [http://www.aviationconsumer.com/sample/planereviews.html Article - "AGAC AA-1" Aviation Consumer]
* [http://www.grumman.net/specific/yankee/trustytrainer.html Cox, Bill, "Trusty Trainer", Plane & Pilot Magazine (1997)]
* Gulfstream American Model AA-1 Yankee Owner's manual January 15th, 1979
* Wilkinson, Stephan "How It's Built", Flying magazine November 1968 "The Yankees Are Here"
* Hellman, Judy, "How It Flies", Flying magazine November 1968 "The Yankees Are Here"
* Connes, Keith, "How It Will Sell", Flying magazine November 1968 "The Yankees Are Here"
* Weeghman, Richard B., "How It Is Backed", Flying magazine November 1968 "The Yankees Are Here"
* [http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAD.nsf/0/1A0B4331870568EC86256A38005D90AD?OpenDocument&Highlight=73-13-07 FAA Airworthiness Directive 73-13-07]
* [http://www.grumman.net/cgrcc/specs.html Grumman Gang AA-1 Specifications and production numbers]
* [http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/c2468308f6ba047f862573ca00659c7a/$FILE/A11ea.pdf Type Certificate]
* [http://www.aya.org The American Yankee Association] .
* [http://www.grumman.net/ The Grumman Gang]
* [http://www.tigeraircraft.com Former location of Tiger Aircraft LLC website]
* Bede BD-1
Cessna 150and 152
Van's Aircraft RV-6, RV-7, and RV-9
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