- Punch-up in Piestany
The Punch-up in Piestany was an infamous
bench-clearing brawlbetween Canada and the Soviet Unionduring the final game of the 1987 World Junior Ice Hockey Championshipsin Piešťany, Czechoslovakiaon January 4, 1987. The brawl resulted in the disqualification of both nations, which caused the Canadians to lose a chance at the gold medal, while the Soviets had already been eliminated from medal contention. The brawl is famous for officials having turned off the arena lights in a desperate attempt at ending the 20 minute melee. Much of the blame for the brawl was placed on Norwegian referee Hans Rønning, who was selected for the game based on his perceived "neutrality" rather than experience.
Following the brawl, the
International Ice Hockey Federation(IIHF) suspended the players involved in the brawl for 18 months, and the coaches for three years. The players' suspensions were later reduced to six months on appeal, allowing several players from both teams to return for the 1988 tournament in Moscow. Both nations won medals in 1988, as Canada won the gold medal while the Soviets won silver.
The brawl dramatically raised the profile of the World Junior Hockey Championships in Canada, which now attracts a level of attention similar to that of the
Stanley CupFinals. The fervent patriotism displayed by Canadian Broadcasting Corporationanalyst Don Cherry in the aftermath of the brawl led to a sharp rise in his own popularity with Canadian fans. Several players in that game went on to play in the National Hockey League, including Brendan Shanahan, Theoren Fleury, Sergei Fedorovand Alexander Mogilny.
Hockey's "Cold War"
Canada and the Soviet Union had engaged in an increasingly intense rivalry since the Soviets first emerged on the international scene by winning the 1954
World Ice Hockey Championships. From 1963 until 1983, the Soviets captured 17 World Championship titles amidst repeated accusations from Canada that their teams were made up of professionals masquerading as amateurs. [cite web |url=http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/all-medallists/men.html |title=IIHF World Championships |publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |accessdate=2008-01-08] The accusations eventually led to Canada boycotting the 1972 Olympic hockey tournament.cite web |url=http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/winter02/hockey/story?id=1326249 |title=Russians regroup on other side of the red line |publisher=ESPN |author=Merron, Jeff |accessdate=2008-07-11] Finally, the 1972 Summit Serieswas organized, pitting the Soviet all-stars against Canada's NHL all-stars. The eight game series was won by Canada 4–3–1 as Paul Hendersonscored the winning goal in the deciding contest. [cite web |url=http://sports.espn.go.com/nhl/columns/story?columnist=burnside_scott&id=2993115 |title=Super Series evokes memories of 1972 |author=Burnside, Scott |publisher=ESPN |accessdate=2008-01-08] The Soviets handily won a second Summit Series against World Hockey Associationall-stars in 1974. [cite web |url=http://www.hhof.com/html/GamesSummaryWHA1974.shtml |title=WHA vs. USSR |publisher=Hockey Hall of Fame |accessdate=2008-01-08] The series led to the creation of the Canada Cup, a tournament held five times between 1976 and 1991. Canada won four titles, losing to the Soviet Union in 1981. [cite web |url=http://www.tsn.ca/world_cup_hockey/feature.asp?fid=9318 |title=Canada Cup 1991 |publisher=TSN.ca |accessdate=2008-01-08] Also from 1976 until 1991, top Soviet club teams toured the NHL in what became known as the Super Series. [cite web |url=http://www.russianhockey.net/USSRvsNHL.htm |title=USSR vs. NHL |publisher=russianhockey.net |accessdate=2008-01-08]
The World Junior Championships were formally created in 1977, and to that point had been dominated by the Soviet Union with seven championships. [cite web |url=http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/all-medallists/u20.html |title=IIHF World U20 Championships |publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |accessdate=2008-01-08] Until 1982, Canada sent either their
Memorial Cupchampion or an all-star team. 1982 was the first time Canada sent a national junior team, under the auspices of Hockey Canada's "Program of Excellence". [cite web |last=Goldring |first=Peter |url=http://www.petergoldring.ca/EN/sports_scene/canada%E2%80%99s_world_junior_hockey_success/ |title=Canada's world junior hockey success |publisher=petergoldring.ca |accessdate=2008-07-11] The Canadians won that tournament, and again in 1985.cite web |url=http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/history/all-medallists/u20.html |title=IIHF World U20 Champions |publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |accessdate=2008-07-11]
The "Cold War" culminated in 1987 with
Rendez-vous '87, as the Soviet national team played a two game series against the NHL all-stars in place of the NHL All-Star Game. The series was split, with the NHL winning the first game 4–3, and the Soviets the second, 5–3. [cite news |first=Malcolm |last=Moran |title=Soviet ties series on 2nd-period surge |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3D61F31F937A25751C0A961948260&scp=2&sq=Rendez-vous+%2787 |publisher=New York Times |date=1987-02-14 |accessdate=2008-01-08] The 1987 Canada Cupfollowed, and was won by Canada two-games-to-one, with the third game being described as the greatest in hockey history. [cite web |url=http://www.tsn.ca/world_cup_hockey/feature.asp?fid=9317 |title=Canada Cup 1987 |publisher=TSN.ca |accessdate=2008-01-08] The winning goal was scored by Mario Lemieuxon a pass from Wayne Gretzky.
In 1987, the World Junior Hockey Championship was a
round robintournament. The teams with the top three records won the gold, silve and bronze medals.Harvnb|Podnieks|1998|p=168] Finlandhad finished their schedule with a 5–1–1 record to lead the tournament. Canada entered the game with a 4–1–1 record, and had already been assured the bronze medal. A victory against the Soviets would have guaranteed Canada the silver, and a victory by more than five goals would have won the gold medal.cite web |url=http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-41-2366-13893/sports/hockey_history/clip9 |title=CBC Archives - The 'Punch-up in Piestany' |publisher=cbc.ca |accessdate=2008-01-06] The Soviet Union, entering the game with a 2–3–1 record, had already been eliminated from medal contention. The match-up between the two squads was deliberately scheduled to be the final game of the tournament, as organizers expected at least one of the teams would be playing for the gold medal. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=116]
The IIHF assigned Norwegian referee Hans Rønning as the referee for this game. The assignment was based on his neutrality, despite being inexperienced officiating at the international level.cite news |first=John F. |last=Burns |title=Diplomacy takes hard check |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7D61E39F931A25752C0A961948260 |work=New York Times |date=1987-01-12 |accessdate=2008-01-07 ] Upon hearing of Rønning's assignment, Canadian representative Dennis McDonald sought out IIHF supervisor of officials,
René Fasel, hoping to convince him to select a different official. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=119] Aside from the question of his competence to call a game of this magnitude, the Canadians were also concerned about Rønning following an earlier game in the tournament he officiated between Canada the United States. A skirmish had broken out during the pre-game warm-ups against the Americans three days earlier. The officials were not on the ice when the melee occurred, however Rønning randomly ejected one player from each team for the brawl. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=111] Canadian Captain Steve Chiassonwas thus barred from the game against the Americans, as well as the following game for being assessed a match penalty. [Harvnb|Podnieks|1998|p=167] Unable to convince IIHF officials to change the assignment, McDonald was concerned about how the game would be played. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=120] Rønning's inexperience at that level was later identified as a significant cause of the brawl, as several stick infractions by both sides had gone uncalled, causing anger to rise between both teams.
Off the opening faceoff, Sergei Shesterikov elbowed Canadian
Dave McLlwain, who responded by cross-checking the Soviet player. Neither player was assessed a penalty. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=123] Five minutes in, Theoren Fleuryscored the opening goal for Canada. In celebrating the goal, Fleury slid across centre ice on his knees, acting as if his stick was a machine gun, pretending to "fire" on the Soviet bench. Canadian Amateur Hockey Associationpresident Murray Costellolater said "It was an inflammatory act, completely unnecessary, lacking any sort of respect." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=126] The first period continued in the same fashion, both teams repeatedly slashing their opponents and Canada leading 3–1. Interviewed by the CBC during the intermission, Fleury stated "The boys are up for the gold medal. Everybody is so tense. Tempers are flying. It's really tough out there... I can't believe it. It's so tense. It's so tense." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=130]
Early in the second period, the game was paused for a moment of silence in memory of four
Swift Current Broncosplayers who were killed when their team bus crashed in Saskatchewanfive days previous. There was a drop in intensity in the five minutes of play that followed. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=132] However, just after the six-minute mark, following a minor scuffle that sent two players from each team to the penalty box, the teams resumed shoving and slashing at each other. Each team also scored a goal, giving Canada a 4–2 lead halfway through the game. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=134]
The brawl began off a face-off as Shesterikov collided with
Everett Sanipass, which led to a fight between the two.Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=136] Soviet player Pavel Kostichkinalso leveled a two-handed slash at Fleury, leading to another fight. [cite news |first=Lance |last=Hornby |title=War on ice |work=Calgary Sun |date=1987-01-05 |page=32] The battle quickly escalated into a line brawl involving all players on the ice for both teams. Returning from a commercial break, Canadian commentator Don Wittmanunderstated the severity of the fighting by saying "well, we had a real skirmish just moments ago following a face-off." Evgeny Davydovwas the first player from either team to leave his bench to join the melee, prompting all players from both teams to leave their benches.
The brawl was violent at times.
Mike Keanepaired off against Valeri Zelepukin, with the Canadian "fighting like it was for the world title" according to Fleury. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=139] In another fight, Vladimir Konstantinovleveled a head-buttthat broke Greg Hawgood's nose. Brendan Shanahanlater described it as "the greatest head-butt I've ever seen." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=142] Stephane Roywas pummeled by two Soviet players. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=143] The remaining players paired off as the officials attempted to break up the fighting. The players were involved in at least a dozen separate fights over the the entire ice surface. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=1398]
Unable to control the situation, Rønning and his linesmen eventually left the ice under the orders of Czechoslovakian officials. [cite news |title=Fight kayos Canada, Soviets |publisher=Canadian Press |work=Calgary Herald |date=1987-01-05 |page=A1–A2 ] In a desperate attempt at ending the brawl, tournament officials had the arena lights turned off, leaving the players to fight in the dark as the fans whistled loudly in disapproval of the entire situation. By the time the fights had finally broken up, the IIHF ordered the game suspended. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=147]
The IIHF held an emergency meeting in an arena office to decide how to handle the incident. Each team was represented by a delegate, and led by IIHF President
Günther Sabetzki. The delegates voted 8–1 in favour of expelling both teams from the tournament, the lone dissenting vote being that of Canada's Dennis McDonald.cite news |first=John F. |last=Burns |title=Diplomacy takes hard check (page 2) |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7D61E39F931A25752C0A961948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 |work=New York Times |date=1987-01-12 |accessdate=2008-01-07 ] McDonald was incensed by the voting. Three nations— Finland, Czechoslovakiaand Sweden—all stood to gain medal position by voting the two teams out. The Americans only promised support if other nations supported Canada, while Sabetzki could barely control his disdain for the Canadians. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=148]
After voting to disqualify the two teams, officials still invited them to the tournament banquet and medal ceremony. McDonald stated the Canadians were not interested. Sabetzki and Czechoslovak officials responded by ordering the Canadian team out of the arena within half an hour. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=149] Upon leaving, the Canadians were met by armed soldiers, escorted across the border, and out of Czechoslovakia. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=157] The IIHF voided the standing of both teams, including individual statistics. In the words of McDonald, "it was like we were never here." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=150]
Both teams attempted to blame the other for allowing the violence to get out of hand. Soviet official Anatoly Kastriukov blamed a Canadian trainer for igniting hostilities by running over to the Soviet bench and "pummeling" one of their assistant coaches.cite news |title=Soviets put blame on Canada |publisher=Canadian Press |work=Calgary Herald |date=1987-01-07] The Canadians, meanwhile, pointed to Davydov being the first off the bench as being the spark that lead to the brawl. [cite news |first=Geoff |last=Fraser |title=IIHF aims to punish someone |work=Calgary Herald |date=1987-01-08 |page=C1] CBC commentator Don Cherry was one of the first to float a conspiracy theory that the Soviets had done so as a deliberate attempt to have Canada disqualified, and therefore lose a medal. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=164]
Alan Eaglesonsuggested that the IIHF's decision would have been different had it been the Soviets in contention for a medal, and not the Canadians. [cite news |first=Lance |last=Hornby |title=Real tragedy for hockey |publisher=Canadian Press |work=Calgary Sun |date=1987-01-05 |page=33]
The IIHF voted to suspend all players involved from competing in international events for 18 months, and all coaches for three years. The player suspensions were later cut to six months, which allowed eligible players such as Fleury and Mogilny to participate in the 1988 tournament. An 18-month ban would have also prevented any of the players from participating in the 1988 Winter Olympics. The IIHF also considered demoting both teams to the B pool as further punishment but backed off as the next year's tournament was set to be held in the Soviet Union, while Canada represented the only media revenue the tournament generated at the time. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=214-215]
Among the Canadians, only two players were not suspended:
Jimmy Waiteand Pierre Turgeon. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=177] Waite felt he could not risk being ejected for fighting under the belief that the game would resume, and that the Canadian backup goaltender, Shawn Simpson, was injured. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=172] Steve Nemethwould later apply for early reinstatement arguing that he was not fighting, but trying to help break the players apart. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=176] Many of their teammates never forgave Nemeth and Turgeon for failing to defend their teammates. In the words of Everett Sanipass: "I'm looking for someone to help (Stephane) Roy out and I look over at the bench. There's this dog Turgeon, just sitting there, with his head down. He wouldn't get his ass off the bench ... just sitting there when everyone's off the Soviet bench and at least one of our guys is in real trouble getting double-teamed." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=175]
1988 World Junior Ice Hockey Championshipsin Moscow, Canada and the Soviet Union won the gold and silver medals, respectively, as both teams' rosters featured several players from the 1987 tournament. [cite web |url=http://www.tsn.ca/World_jrs/feature/?fid=987&hubname= |title=World Junior Hockey Championship - 1988 |publisher=tsn.ca |accessdate=2008-01-06] Since the 1987 tournament, the two nations have maintained their dominance of the tournament. Canada has won 12 gold medals between 1988 and 2008, while the Soviet Union, and its successor, Russia, has won five.
Hans Rønning's assignment to officiate the game was viewed by other on-ice officials as a nod to organizers from
Lillehammer, Norway, who had just won the right to host the 1994 Winter Olympicsand were observing the game. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=1984] At age 38, Rønning expected the 1987 tournament to be among his last international assignments. Rønning never officiated another international game, though he did referee two more seasons in Norway before retiring. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=190]
In Canada, public sentiment widely supported the players. Opinion polls taken in the aftermath of the brawl saw 87–92% of respondents supporting their actions. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=209] Don Cherry's passionate defence of the Canadian team led to a sharp increase in his popularity.
Toronto Maple Leafsowner, Harold Ballardhad special gold medals made up for the Canadian team. Ballard stated that "I believe the Canadian boys deserve the gold medal and I'm going to see to it that they get them. Imagine how these Russians engineered this whole thing over there just because they've got a lousy team and were scared to go home finishing in sixth place." [cite news |title=It's Ballard to rescue |work=Calgary Herald |publisher=Canadian Press |date=1987-01-06 |page=C1]
Canadian hockey officials criticized the players for the brawl. In 2005, the suggestion of a reunion for the 1987 team was met with uncomfortable silence and "I don't think so" from
Hockey Canadaofficials. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=2] Immediately following the tournament, Canadian officials were seen as trying to distance themselves from the team: "The CAHA (Canadian Amateur Hockey Association) didn't do anything for these kids", reporter Jim Cressman said. "These kids were good enough to make this team. They gave up their holidays, did their best, risked getting hurt and ended up on the wrong end of a bad decision - and the CAHA basically handed them their tickets." [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=195] Mike Smith was in the airport while the Canadian juniors were waiting for their flight, and took the opportunity to criticize them for their play at the tournament as well as the brawl. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=196]
Before Piestany, the junior tournament had a small following in Canada. Only one Canadian reporter flew overseas to cover the 1987 tournament. That changed in 1988, as the major Canadian media outlets all sent reporters to Moscow. The tournament's prestige in Canada continued to grow. By the 2005 tournament, over 100 Canadian reporters covered the tournament in
Grand Forks, North Dakota.Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=253–254]
The brawl was seen as an embarrassment by Soviet officials who prided themselves on the discipline of their teams. A senior official, Anatoly Kostryukov said that the "ice hockey department and the Ice Hockey Federation of the USSR will soon analyze the Soviet team's performance at the championship, and those guilty of the incident will be strictly punished".cite news |first=Floren |last=Erik |title=Brawl won't affect future events |work=Calgary Sun |date=1987-01-06 |page=32] The Soviet media agency,
Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union, was highly critical of the coaching staff's inability to control the players. Head coach Vladimir Vasilievwas dismissed as the coach of the Soviet national junior team as a result of Piestany. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=167]
Of the 20 players who dressed for Canada in that game, 19 went on to play in the National Hockey League. [Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=25] In 1987, only one Soviet had ever played in the NHL,
Viktor Nechayev. The players for this Soviet team would be among the first wave of Eastern Bloc players to arrive in the NHL with the fall of the Iron Curtain. Five of them would ultimately win the Stanley Cup.Harvnb|Joyce|2006|p=26–27]
Fighting in ice hockey
*Harvard reference|Surname=Joyce|Given=Gare|Year=2006|Title=When the Lights Went Out|Publisher=Random House|ID=ISBN 9780385662758
*Harvard reference|Surname=Podnieks|Given=Andrew|Year=1998|Title=Red, White, and Gold: Canada at the World Junior Championships 1974–1999|Publisher=ECW Press|ID=ISBN 1-55022-382-8
*cite web |url=http://www.tsn.ca/World_jrs/feature/?fid=3845&hubname= |title=World Junior Hockey Championship - History |publisher=tsn.ca |accessdate=2008-01-06
*cite web |url=http://www.hockeycanada.ca/1/9/3/2/index1.shtml |title=1987 IIHF World Junior Championship |publisher=hockeycanada.ca |accessdate=2008-01-08
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-41-1984-12742-11/on_this_day/sports/twt 1987 CBC News report on the brawl]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ydbATVriqA The Punch-up in Piestany] on
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