- Taifa of Seville
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "طائفة أشبيليّة" "Reino Taifa de Sevilla"
conventional_long_name = Taifa Kingdom of Seville
common_name = Kingdom of Seville
continent = Europe
region = Mediterranean
country = Spain
era = Middle Ages
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 1023
year_end = 1091
event_start = Downfall of Caliphate of Cordoba
event_end = Death of last king Al-Mu'tamid and defeat after Almoravid Troops
p1 = Caliphate_of_Cordoba
s2 = Almoravid_dynasty
image_map_caption = The Kingdom of Seville at its greatest extent in green, c. 1080. (1078) year of annexion.
common_languages = Arabic, Mozarabic , Hebrew
religion = Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism
Taifaof Seville (Arabic: طائفة أشبيليّة, "Ta'ifa Ishbiliya" )was a short lived kingdom in what is now southern Spainand Portugal. The kingdom originated in 1023and lasted until 1091. It was under the rule of the Arab Abbadidfamily. The first king of Seville was Abu al-Qasim (1023-1042). He was qadiof Sevilleand declared independence of the province of Seville from Caliphate of Cordobaafter its downfall in 1031, becoming king of Seville as Abbad I. The second king was his son Abbad II Al-Mu'tadid (1042-1069) and last king in the dinasty was the king Al-Mu'tamid (1062-1091).
The kingdom started as a small, weakly defended territory comprising parts of current Spanish provinces of
Seville, Huelvaand Cadiz, but quickly emerged as the most powerful Taifa kingdom of the time, after its rulers began pursuing a policy of expansion. After several military campaigns, the kingdom achieved dominance over all of Western Andaluciaand Murcia. Nevertheless, the Abbad family was still subject to taxation by the King of Castile, to whom they were vassals. The drain of these taxes weakened the kingdom's power, and the country was conquered, in 1091, by the Almoravids, after the Almoravidsravaged the city of Seville and Al-Mu'tamid ordered his sons to give up the royal fortress (early Alcazar of Seville) for saving their lifes. He died as prisoner assassinated in 1095 in Africa. After his death of King Al-Mu'tamid the kingdom was totally ruled by the Almoravids. Al-Mu'tamid had strongs relations with the northern kingdoms of Iberia, as Castile but he finally supported the military movements of the Almoravids. The Almoravids did not respected the andalusi king and his court, and he was then made prisoner by the almoravid chief, to whom he had lent support.
Besides the intrigues and the conquerings eagerness of the kings, many artists of the time moved to the court of Seville, as the
Almeriapoet Ibn al-Abbâr, author of epistoles, and the poet Abû `Âmir ibn Maslama and Abû l-Walîd al-Himyarî, that made a compilation of the literary works of both ones.
Al-Mutadid also was a very remarkable poet, learned by the poet Abu Bakr ibn Ammar. On the other hand, he had a very cruel personality. His son Al-Mu'tamid was even more dedicated to poetry than his father. He was friend of the poet Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn al-`Ammâr, who was famous at that time after defeating the Castilian king Alfonso VI in a
al-Rašidy al-Râdîwere also very interested on arts, but had any interests on politics, and after the death of the king Al-Mu'tamid, the Taifa of Seville was ruled by the Almoravids.
Al-Mu'tamid was lover of the future queen Itimad (Rumayqiyya). A brief tale on the queen Rumayqiyya appears on the book "'Libro de los ejemplos del Conde Lucanor y de Patronio" (Book of the examples of Count Lucanor and Patronio), as the tale XXX, "De lo que aconteció al rey Abenabed de Sevilla con su mujer, Ramaiquía" (Tell of the story who happened to the king Abenabed of Seville with her wife, Ramaiquía).
There are chronicles of that time that tells Almoravids fought under a white flag, while Andalusies soldiers as those of King Al-Mu'tamid fought under different green flags with islamic texts written on them. This is supposed to be the origin of the
Andaluciaflag, current used as the autonomous region flag, called Arbonaidaor Arbondaira.
History of Islam
History of Spain
* [http://medspains.stanford.edu/demo/seville/index.html Brief history of Seville]
* [http://www.balagan.org.uk/war/iberia/0711/chronology1008.htm War upon Iberia]
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