- Mara (folklore)
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A mara, or a mare is a kind of malignant female
wraithin Scandinavian folklorebelieved to cause nightmares. She also appears in Slavic folklore, but rather as a wraith type, not the specific (named) person. She appears as early as in the Norse Ynglinga saga, but the belief itself is probably even older (see below). "Mara" is the Old Norse, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic name, "mare" is Old English, Norwegian and Danish. In Polish the word mara (female ghost or wraith) is linked to the verb "marzyć" (to wish). However, the positive meaning of dream is rather new, as in the past the word had negative connotation: "to have a nightmare" or as a noun - "the bed of a man in agony". This meaning is still present in old proverb ("idziesz na dzika, szykuj łoże, idziesz na niedźwiedzia, szykuj mary") which means: planning a boar hunt, prepare a bed; planning a bear hunt, prepare a deadman's bed. The mara gave also birth to female demon of winter Marzanna. To this day, there is a folklore ritual still played in Poland: Marzanna (mara) straw dolls are thrown into rivers at the first day of the spring. "Mareritt" is the Norwegian word for nightmare, meaning "ride of the mara".
The mara was thought of as an immaterial being – capable of moving through a keyhole or the opening under a door – who seated herself at the chest of a sleeping person and "rode" him or her, thus causing
nightmares. In Norwegian/Danish, the word for nightmareis "mareritt/mareridt", meaning "mareride". The Icelandic word "martröð" has the same meaning, whereas the Swedish "mardröm" translates as "maredream". The weight of the mara could also result in breathing difficulties or feeling of suffocation (an experience now known as " sleep paralysis"). This phenomenon is present in the Finnish word for nightmare, " _su. painajainen", which is derived from the verb "painaa", meaning "to press/to apply pressure". In the Finnish folklore, a " _su. Painajainen" was originally a malign creature that climbed on the chest of a sleeping person, paralysing or even suffocating the sleeper.
The mara was also believed to "ride" horses, which left them exhausted and covered in sweat by the morning. She could also entangle the hair of the sleeping man or beast, resulting in "marelocks", a belief probably originating as an explanation for
Polish plait– a hair disease. Even trees could be ridden by the mara, resulting in branches being entangled. The undersized, twisted pine-trees growing on coastal rocks and on wet grounds are known in Sweden as " _sv. martallar" (marepines).
According to a common belief, the free-roaming spirit of sleeping women could become maras, either out of wickedness or as a form of
curse. In the latter case, finding out who the cursed person was and repeating "you are a mara" three times was often enough to release her from this condition.
The concept of the mara has very old roots in the folklore of the
Germanic peoples, possibly the belief was shaped as early as in proto-Indo-European religion. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word can be traced back to an Indo-European root *"mer", meaning to rub away or to harm. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE326.html mer- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000 ] ] The Slavic nightmare spirit "mora" is likely to have been derived from this root as well, and possibly also the Irish deity " Mórrígan" and the Buddhist demon "Māra" (< PIE *mor-o-). The proto-Germanic name is *"marōn" (< PIE *mor-ōn-), and its Old English derivative is "mære". The Anglo-Saxon belief in this creature still echoes in the word "nightmare". In later English folklore, hags and witches took on many of the roles of the mara, producing terms such as "hagridden" and "haglock". In Germany the activities of the mara (" _de. mahr") were shifted to the elves (nightmare in German is "Albtraum" or "elf-dream"). According to " Dictionnaire de l'Académie française", the French word " _fr. cauchemar" ("sleep-mare") entered the French languagefrom a Middle Dutch"mare". [http://atilf.atilf.fr/Dendien/scripts/generic/affiche.exe?76;s=1437207030;d=1;f=1;t=1;r=4;]
Similar mythical creatures are the
succubus/incubus, although the belief in the mara lacks the fundamental sexual element of these beings.
Mara in popular culture
Romeo and Juliet", a fairy with similar, if not identical, tendencies appears, but is known as " Queen Mab".
Several Mara appear in the book "
The Weirdstone of Brisingamen", although the creatures as described have more in common with trolls.
In the "
Torchwood" episode "Small Worlds", Jack Harknessstates that he thinks the evil, sadistic "fairies" are part Mara, which he describes as "kind of malignant wraiths" that suffocate people in their sleep.
In White Wolf's "
Exalted" RPG, there is a Second Circle Succubus-like Demon named Mara.
The Elder Scrolls" series, Mara appears as one of the Goddesses in the pantheon of the nine divine.
In the Blizzard RPG Diablo 2, a unique amulet bears the name "Mara's Kaleidoscope". Mara is the name of NPC in Rogue Encampment.
In the Swedish
RPGDoDT ( _sv. Drakar och Demoner Trudvang) it is possible to attract a mara to haunt one's dreams when getting scared enough.
A character in "
Oh My Goddess!" is a female demon (first class) named Mara.
The rap group "Insane Clown Posse" often refers to the Mara in their lyrics, calling it "The Witch on your chest." Visitations of the "Witch" are often accompanied by the inability to move, and a crushing feeling on one's chest, preventing them from breathing.
In the manga "Alice 19th" by
Yuu Watase, mara is the darkness that lives in people's hearts and causes them to say or do hurtful things.
In the popular Space simulator "Freespace 2", the Mara is a very powerful Fighter used by the main enemy of the game, the Shivans.
The progressive/power metal band
Pyramazehas a song called "Touched by the Mara" on their 2008 CD "Immortal".
The Russian black/doom metal band
Butterfly Templehave a CD entitled "Vremya Mary" ("Time of Mara"), which was released in 2005. The albums also contains a song of the same name.
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Look at other dictionaries:
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