The Genographic Project


The Genographic Project

The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from hundreds of thousands of people from around the world.

Overview

Field researchers at 10 regional centers around the world collect DNA samples from indigenous populations. The company also sells self-testing kits: for US$100 anyone in the world can order a self-testing kit from which a mouth scraping (buccal swab) is obtained, analyzed and the DNA information placed on an Internet accessible database. The genetic markers on mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) and Y-chromosomes (12 markers) are used to trace the customer's distant ancestry, and each customer is provided with their genetic history. As of August 2008 more than 265,000 people had bought a test kit.

The US$40m project is a privately-funded, nonprofit collaboration between the National Geographic Society, IBM and the [http://www.waittfoundation.org Waitt Family Foundation] . Part of the proceeds from the sale of self-testing kits support the Genographic Project's ongoing DNA collectioncite web |url= http://www.hanahou.com/pages/Magazine.asp?Action=DrawArticle&ArticleID=619&MagazineID=39 |title= The Ancestors' Ancestors |author= Michael Shapiro |work= Hana Hou! Vol. 10 #5 |date= October/November 2007 |accessdate= 2007-10-18 |quote= ] , but the majority are ploughed into a Legacy Fund to be spent on [http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/legacy.html cultural preservation projects] nominated by indigenous communities.

Prominent team members are:
*Spencer Wells, project director (National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence)
*Jin Li, principal investigator, East Asia
*Fabricio Santos, principal investigator, South America
*Jaume Bertranpetit, principal investigator, Western and Central Europe
*Pierre Zalloua, principal investigator, Middle East and North Africa
*Himla Soodyall, principal investigator, Sub-Saharan Africa
*Simon Longstaff, advisory board chair (director of the St James Ethics Centre)
*Meave Leakey, advisory board member
*Merritt Ruhlen, advisory board member
*Colin Renfrew, advisory board member
*Wade Davis, advisory board member
*Ajay Royyuru, head of computational biology, IBM

The Genographic Project is undertaking widespread consultation with indigenous groups from around the world. The Advisory Board includes Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, the geneticist who originally proposed the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP).

Criticism

:"See also: Archaeology of the Americas, Models of migration to the New World"Shortly after the announcement of the project in April 2005, the Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, (IPCB), released a statement protesting about the project, its connections with the HGDP, and called for a boycott of IBM, Gateway Computers, and National Geographic. Around May 2006, the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues recommended suspending the project.

As of December 2006 some federally recognized tribes in North America have declined to take part. "What the scientists are trying to prove is that we’re the same as the Pilgrims except we came over several thousand years before,” said Maurice Foxx, chairman of the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs and a member of the Mashpee Wampanoag. "Why should we give them that openly?" [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/us/10dna.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all "DNA Gatherers Hit Snag: Tribes Don’t Trust Them"] , by Amy Harmon of "The New York Times", December 10, 2006.] However, many indigenous people are excited to participate in the project, to unveil their factual history that was not written, but needs to be decoded by geneticists, anthropologists, archaeologists and linguistsFact|date=September 2008. More than 40,000 indigenous participants from the Americas, Africa, Asia and Europe had joined the project as of August 2008.

ee also

Genographic Project public participation kits are processed by Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) using the Arizona Research Labs at the University of Arizona.

*genetic diversity
*human genetics
*Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
*Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups
*Mitochondrial Eve
*Y-chromosomal Adam

Notes

External links

Official sites
* [http://www.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/ Genographic Project] , official site at National Geographic
* [http://www.ibm.com/genographic/ IBM Genographic Project] , official site at IBMSupporting participants
* [http://www.waittfoundation.org Waitt Family Foundation]
* [http://www.arl.arizona.edu/ Arizona Research Laboratories (ARL)]
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/ftdna_genographic.html Family Tree DNA (FTDNA)] News articles
* [http://www.explore-qatar.com/archives/all_qatar_today_articles/archive-186.htm Migration patterns of early Humans] and [http://www.explore-qatar.com/imglib/spencer_4.jpgthe full size map]
* [http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/science/04/12/genographic/index.html "Finding the roots of modern humans"] , CNN, 14 April 2005.
* [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2005-04-12-genographic-project_x.htm "'Genographic Project' aims to tell us where we came from"] , USA Today, 17 April 2005
* [http://ipcb.org/issues/human_genetics/htmls/geno_pr.html "Indigenous Peoples Oppose National Geographic"] , Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, 13 April 2005.
* [http://www.db2mag.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=193105321 "Tracking the Truth"] , "DB2 Magazine" (IBM), information about IBM's role in the project. December 2006.
* [http://www.isogg.org/gss.htm Genographic Success Stories]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7316281.stm "Crusaders left genetic legacy"] , "BBC News", 27 March 2008
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7358868.stm "Human Line 'Nearly split In Two"] , "BBC News", 24 April 2008


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