Velarization is a
secondary articulationof consonants by which the back of the tongueis raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, velarization is transcribed by one of three diacritics:
tildeor swung dashthrough the letter covers both velarization and pharyngealization, as in IPA| [ɫ] (the velarized equivalent of IPA| [l] )
superscript gamma<IPA|ˠ> after the letter standing for the velarized consonant, as in IPA| [tˠ] (the velarized equivalent of IPA| [t] )
#A superscript double-u <IPA|ʷ> indicates either simultaneous velarization and
labialization, as in IPA| [sʷ] , or labialization of a velar consonant, as in IPA| [kʷ] .Although electropalatographicstudies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization, [Harvcoltxt|Recasens & Espinosa|2005|p=2 citing Harvcoltxt|Recasens, Fontdevila & Pallarès|1995] the IPA offers no way to indicate degrees of velarization, for this difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language.
In many languages, including Irish and Russian, velarized consonants contrast phonemically with palatalized consonants. The palatalized/velarized contrast is known by other names, especially in language pedagogy: in Irish language teaching, the terms slender (for palatalized) and broad (for velarized) are often used, while in Russian language teaching, the terms soft (for palatalized) and hard (for velarized) are usual. The terms light (for palatalized) and dark (for velarized) are also widespread. For many languages, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or dentoalveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position. [Harvcoltxt|Recasens & Espinosa|2005|p=4]
In some accents of English, such as
Received Pronunciation, the phonemeIPA|/l/ has "dark" and "light" allophones: the "dark" allophone appears in syllable codaposition (e.g. in "full"), while the "light" allophone ("light" meaning "non-velarized" rather than "palatalized" here) appears in syllable onsetposition (e.g. in "lawn"). Other accents of English, such as Scottish Englishand Australian English, have "dark L" in all positions, while Hiberno-Englishhas "clear L" in all positions.
last = Recasens
first = Daniel
first2 = J
first2 = Maria Dolores.
title= Velarization degree and coarticulatory resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German
journal= Journal of Phonetics
last = Recasens
first = Daniel
first2 = Aina
title= Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects
journal= Journal of the International Phonetic Association
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Look at other dictionaries:
velarization — See velarize. * * * ▪ phonetics in phonetics, secondary articulation in the pronunciation of consonants, in which the tongue is drawn far up and back in the mouth (toward the velum, or soft palate), as if to pronounce a back vowel such as o … Universalium
velarization — noun Date: 1915 1. the quality or state of being velarized 2. an act or instance of velarizing … New Collegiate Dictionary
velarization — noun The act or process of velarizing … Wiktionary
velarization — ve·lar·iza·tion … English syllables
velarization — ˌvēlərə̇ˈzāshən, ˌrīˈ noun ( s) : the act of velarizing … Useful english dictionary
velarize — velarization, n. /vee leuh ruyz /, v.t., velarized, velarizing. Phonet. to pronounce with velar articulation. Also, esp. Brit., velarise. [1930 35; VELAR + IZE] * * * … Universalium
Velarized alveolar lateral approximant — ɫ Image … Wikipedia
Sesotho phonology — Notes: *All examples marked with ‡ are included in the audio samples. If a table caption is marked then all Sesotho examples in that table are included in the audio samples. *The orthography used in this and related articles is that of South… … Wikipedia
Tilde — For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ◌̃ Tilde Punctuation … Wikipedia
Pharyngealization — is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods: #A tilde … Wikipedia