- Haber process
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the
nitrogen fixationreaction of nitrogenand hydrogen, over an iron substrate, to produce ammonia."Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production" by Vaclav Smil (2001) ISBN 0-262-19449-X] ["Fertilizer Industry: Processes, Pollution Control and Energy Conservation" by Marshall Sittig (1979) Noyes Data Corp., N.J. ISBN 0-8155-0734-8] ["Heterogeneous Catalysts: A study Guide"] The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce on an industrial scale and the fertilizer generated from the ammonia is responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population.cite book |last=Wolfe |first=David W. |title=Tales from the underground a natural history of subterranean life |year=2001 |publisher=Perseus Pub |location=Cambridge, Mass |isbn=0738201286 |oclc= 46984480 ] Even though 78.1% of the airwe breathe is nitrogen, the gas is relatively unreactive because nitrogen molecules are held together by strong triple bonds. It was not until the early 20th century that this method was developed to harness the atmospheric abundance of nitrogento create ammonia, which can then be oxidized to make the nitrates and nitrites essential for the production of nitratefertilizer and munitions.
The process was first patented by German chemist
Fritz Haber. In 1910 Carl Bosch, while working for German chemical company BASF, successfully commercialized the process and secured further patents. Haber and Bosch were later awarded Nobel prizes, in 1918 and 1931 respectively, for their work in overcoming the chemical and engineering problems posed by the use of large-scale high-pressure technology. Ammonia was first manufactured using the Haber process on an industrial scale in Germany during World War I, to meet the high demand for nitric acid, for use in the manufacturing of explosives, at a time when supply of Chile saltpetre from Chilecould not be guaranteed because this industry was then almost 100% in British hands. It has been suggested that without this process, Germany would not have fought in the war [ [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9807EEDA133BEE32A25750C0A9649C946195D6CF&oref=slogin] ] .
Prior to the use of natural gas as a hydrogen source, electricity was used to electrolyse water. The
Vemork60 MW hydro electric plant in Norway was constructed purely to produce hydrogen via electrolysis of water as a precursor to ammonia production, and up until the second world war provided the majority of Europe's ammonia.
Nowadays, bulk of the chemical technology consists of isolating
hydrogenfrom methane( natural gas) using heterogeneous catalysisand then reacting it with atmospheric nitrogen, but this is not in fact the Haber Process.
Synthesis gas preparation
First, the methane is cleaned, mainly to remove
sulfurimpurities that would poison the catalysts.
The clean methane is then reacted with
steamover a catalyst of nickel oxide. This is called steam reforming::CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2
Secondary reforming then takes place with the addition of air to convert the methane that did not react during steam reforming.
:2CH4 + O2 → 2CO + 4H2:CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
Then two shift reactions convert CO to CO2 by reaction with steam.
The gas mixture is now passed into a methanator, which converts any remaining CO2 into methane for recycling:
: CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O
Ammonia synthesis - Haber Process
The final stage, which is the actual Haber Process is the synthesis of ammonia using
magnetite, iron oxide, as the catalyst:
:N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g), ΔHo = −92.4 kJmol-1
This is done at 150–250 atmospheres (atm) and between 300 and 550 °C, passing the gases over four beds of catalyst, with cooling between each pass to maintain a reasonable
equilibrium constant. On each pass only about 15% conversion occurs, but any unreacted gases are recycled, so that eventually an overall conversion of 98% can be achieved.
The steam reforming, shift conversion, carbon dioxide removal, and methanation steps each operate at absolute pressures of about 25 to 35 bar, and the ammonia synthesis loop operates at absolute pressures ranging from 60 to 180 bar, depending upon which proprietary design is used. There are many engineering and construction companies that offer proprietary designs for ammonia synthesis plants.
Haldor Topsoeof Denmark, Lurgi AGof Germany, Uhde of Germany, and Kellogg, Brown and Rootof the United States are among the most experienced companies in that field. [ [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1:54711794/Grassroots+success+with+KAAP~R~(Kellogg+Brown+and+Roots+Advanced+Ammonia+Process).html?refid=SEO Kellogg Brown's Ammonia Process] URL last accessed April 24 2006]
Reaction rate and equilibrium
There are two opposing considerations in this synthesis: the position of the equilibrium and the rate of reaction. At room temperature, the reaction is slow and the obvious solution is to raise the temperature. This may increase the rate of the reaction but, since the reaction is exothermic, it also has the effect, according to
Le Chatelier's Principle, of favouring the reverse reaction and thus reducing equilibrium constant, given by:
As the temperature increases, the
equilibriumis shifted and hence, the constant drops dramatically according to the van't Hoff equation. Thus one might suppose that a low temperature is to be used and some other means to increase rate. However, the catalyst itself requires a temperature of at least 400 °C to be efficient. Pressureis the obvious choice to favour the forward reaction because there are 4 moles of reactant for every 2 moles of product (see entropy), and the pressure used (around 200 atm) alters the equilibrium concentrations to give a profitable yield.
Economically, though, pressure is an expensive commodity. Pipes and reaction vessels need to be strengthened, valves more rigorous, and there are safety considerations of working at 200 atm. In addition, running pumps and compressors takes considerable energy. Thus the compromise used gives a single pass yield of around 15%.
Another way to increase the yield of the reaction would be to remove the product (i.e. ammonia gas) from the system. In practice, gaseous ammonia is not removed from the reactor itself, since the temperature is too high; but it is removed from the equilibrium mixture of gases leaving the reaction vessel. The hot gases are cooled enough, whilst maintaining a high pressure, for the ammonia to condense and be removed as liquid. Unreacted hydrogen and nitrogen gases are then returned to the reaction vessel to undergo further reaction.
catalysthas no effect on the position of chemical equilibrium; rather, it provides an alternative pathway with lower activation energyand hence increases the reaction rate, while remaining chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. The first Haber–Bosch reaction chambers used osmiumand uraniumcatalysts. However, today a much less expensive ironcatalyst is used almost exclusively.
In industrial practice, the iron catalyst is prepared by exposing a mass of
magnetite, an iron oxide, to the hot hydrogen feedstock. This reduces some of the magnetite to metallic iron, removing oxygenin the process. However, the catalyst maintains most of its bulk volume during the reduction, and so the result is a highly porous material whose large surface area aids its effectiveness as a catalyst. Other minor components of the catalyst include calciumand aluminium oxides, which support the porous iron catalyst and help it maintain its surface area over time, and potassium, which increases the electrondensity of the catalyst and so improves its reactivity.
reaction mechanism, involving the heterogeneous catalyst, is believed to be as follows:
# N2(g) → N2(adsorbed)
# N2(adsorbed) → 2N(adsorbed)
# H2(g) → H2(adsorbed)
# H2(adsorbed) → 2H(adsorbed)
# N(adsorbed) + 3H(adsorbed)→ NH3(adsorbed)
# NH3(adsorbed) → NH3(g)
Reaction 5 occurs in three steps, forming NH, NH2, and then NH3. Experimental evidence points to reaction 2 as being the slow,
A major contributor to the elucidation of this mechanism is
Gerhard Ertl. [cite journal | title = Interaction of nitrogen with iron surfaces: I. Fe(100) and Fe(111) | journal = Journal of Catalysis| volume = 49 | issue = 1 | year = 1977 | pages = 18–41 | author = F. Bozso, G. Ertl, M. Grunze and M. Weiss | doi = 10.1016/0021-9517(77)90237-8] [cite journal | title = The structure of atomic nitrogen adsorbed on Fe(100) | journal = Surface Science| volume = 123 | issue = 1 | year = 1982 | pages = 129–140 | author = R. Imbihl, R. J. Behm, G. Ertl and W. Moritz | doi = 10.1016/0039-6028(82)90135-2] [cite journal | title = Kinetics of nitrogen adsorption on Fe(111) | journal = Surface Science| volume = 114 | issue = 2-3 | year = 1982 | pages = 515–526 | author = G. Ertl, S. B. Lee and M. Weiss | doi = 10.1016/0039-6028(82)90702-6] [cite journal | title = Primary steps in catalytic synthesis of ammonia | author = G. Ertl | journal = Journal of Vacuum Science & Technologya| year = 1983 | volume = 1 |issue = 2 | pages = 1247–1253 | doi = 10.1116/1.572299]
Economic and environmental aspects
The Haber process now produces 100 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer per year, mostly in the form of anhydrous
ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and urea. 3-5% of world natural gas production is consumed in the Haber process (~1-2% of the world's annual energy supply) [cite web|url=http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/nat_gas.html | title=International Energy Outlook 2007] [http://www.fertilizer.org/ifa/statistics/indicators/ind_reserves.asp] [cite journal | doi = 10.1126/science.1076659 | year = 2002 | month = Sep | author = Smith, Barry E. | title = Structure. Nitrogenase reveals its inner secrets | volume = 297 | issue = 5587 | pages = 1654–5 | pmid = 12215632 | journal = Science] . That fertilizer is responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population, as well as various deleterious environmental consequences. Generation of hydrogen using electrolysis of water, using renewable energy, is not currently competitive cost-wise with hydrogen from fossil fuels, such as natural gas, and is responsible for only 4% of current hydrogen production. Notably, the rise of this industrial process led to the "Nitrate Crisis" in Chile, when the British industrials left the country — since the natural nitrate mines were no longer profitable — closing the mines and leaving a large unemployed Chilean population behind.
Timeline of hydrogen technologies
* [http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-haber-bosch-process.htm What is the Haber-Bosch Process?]
* [http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/haberbosch.html Haber-Bosch process]
* [http://www.efma.org/Publications/10anniversary/Section02.asp Fertilizer,agriculture and the production of food]
* [http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9038696 Britannica guide to Nobel Prizes: Fritz Haber]
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1918/haber-bio.html Nobel e-Museum - Biography of Fritz Haber]
* [http://www.ausetute.com.au/haberpro.html Uses and Production of Ammonia]
*”CIEC Catalysis”, [http://www.uyseg.org/catalysis/pages/cat_frames.html]
* [http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/Sept2002/pdf/Sept2002p69-77.pdf Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Haber process — noun an industrial process for producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen by combining them under high pressure in the presence of an iron catalyst • Syn: ↑Haber Bosch process • Hypernyms: ↑industrial process … Useful english dictionary
Haber process — noun Etymology: Fritz Haber died 1934 German chemist Date: 1916 a catalytic process for synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen … New Collegiate Dictionary
Haber process — a process for synthesizing ammonia from gaseous nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst. [named after Fritz HABER] * * * … Universalium
Haber process — /ˈhabə ˌproʊsɛs/ (say hahbuh .prohses) noun an industrial process for preparing ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen, whereby nitrogen is heated with hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst; gaseous ammonia being formed according… … Australian English dictionary
Haber — means to have... in Spanish as an auxiliary verb. For the conjugation, see the conjugation table.Haber can refer to: * The Haber process, the method of synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen. * The Born Haber cycle, an approach to… … Wikipedia
Haber-Boschprocess — Haber Bosch process (häʹbər bôshʹ) n. See Haber process. [After Haber, Fritz, and KarlBosch (1874 1940), German chemist.] * * * … Universalium
Haber, Fritz — (1868–1934) German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1918. Haber developed a process for synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen by combining them under pressure, using iron as a catalyst. The Haber process, as it was called, was adapted for … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Haber-Bosch process — noun an industrial process for producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen by combining them under high pressure in the presence of an iron catalyst • Syn: ↑Haber process • Hypernyms: ↑industrial process … Useful english dictionary
HABER, FRITZ — (1868–1934), German physical chemist and Nobel laureate. Haber was born in Breslau, the son of a prosperous chemical and dye merchant and an alderman of the city. After a period in industry and business, he went in 1893 to the Technische… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Haber, Fritz — born Dec. 9, 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia died Jan. 29, 1934, Basel, Switz. German physical chemist. After early research in electrochemistry and thermodynamics, he developed, with his brother in law Carl Bosch (1874–1940), the Haber Bosch… … Universalium