- Nicotine poisoning
Nicotine poisoning Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F17.0, T65.2 DiseasesDB 30389
Nicotine poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of consuming nicotine, which can potentially be deadly. Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of use of nicotine as an insecticide.
Sixty milligrams of nicotine (the amount in about 30-40 cigarettes ), has the potential to kill an adult who is not a smoker if all of the nicotine were absorbed. This figure is ~120 mg in chronic cigarette smokers, smoking an average of 20 non-light cigarettes delivering ~1.7 mg of nicotine each daily. One cigarette's-worth of nicotine is enough to make a toddler severely ill. In some cases children have become poisoned by topical medicinal creams which contain nicotine.
- Vomiting and nausea, diarrhea
- Difficulty breathing
- Stomach pains/cramps
These symptoms can be traced back to excessive stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic neurons. Initially, nicotine has a short-lived stimulatory-phase, followed by a longer inhibitory phase leading to neuromuscular blockade.
It is sometimes reported that people poisoned by organophosphate insecticides experience the same symptoms as nicotine poisoning. Organophosphates inhibit an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, causing a build up of acetylcholine, excessive stimulation of all types of cholinergic neurons, and a wide range of symptoms. Nicotine is specific for nicotinic cholinergic receptors only and has some, but not all of the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning.
The LD50 of nicotine is 50 mg/kg for rats and 3 mg/kg for mice. 0.5-1.0 mg/kg can be a lethal dosage for adult humans, and 10 mg for children. Nicotine therefore has a high toxicity in comparison to many other alkaloids such as cocaine, which in mice has an LD50 of 95.1 mg/kg. A person can overdose on nicotine through a combination of nicotine patches, nicotine gum, and/or tobacco smoking at the same time.  Spilling an extremely high concentration of nicotine onto the skin can result in intoxication or even death since nicotine readily passes into the bloodstream from dermal contact.
The prognosis is typically good when medical care is provided. It has been stated that if a patient survives nicotine poisoning during the first 4 hours, they usually recover completely.
- ^ Washington Post - 2006
- ^ a b IPCS INCHEM
- ^ Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Beasley DM (September-October 2009). "Nicotinic plant poisoning". Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.) 47 (8): 771–81. doi:10.1080/15563650903252186. PMID 19778187.
- ^ Okamoto M, Kita T, Okuda H, Tanaka T, Nakashima T (Jul 1994). "Effects of aging on acute toxicity of nicotine in rats". Pharmacol Toxicol. 75 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1994.tb00316.x. PMID 7971729.
- ^ http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/overdose.html
- ^ http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/coffin.htm
- ^ Lockhart LP (1933). "Nicotine poisoning". Br Med J 1 (3762): 246–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3762.246-c.
- ^ Saxena K, Scheman A (December 1985). "Suicide plan by nicotine poisoning: a review of nicotine toxicity". Vet Hum Toxicol 27 (6): 495–7. PMID 4082460.
Psychoactive substance-related disorder (F10–F19, 291–292; 303–305) General Alcohol Opioids CannabisSID (Short-term effects of cannabis, Cannabis withdrawal) · SUD (Cannabis dependence) Sedative/hypnotic Cocaine Stimulants Hallucinogen TobaccoSID (Nicotine poisoning, Nicotine withdrawal) Volatile solventsInhalant abuse: Toluene toxicity Multiple Poisonings, toxicities, and overdoses (T36–T65, 960–989) (history) Inorganic OrganicCyanide · NicotineCHO PharmaceuticalsSalicylate · Paracetamol · Opioids · Barbiturate · Benzodiazepines · TCAs · Anticholinesterasecardiovascular system Biological
food poisoning)Fish/seafoodOther vertebrates
Smoking By country
Argentina · Australia · Canada · People's Republic of China · Colombia · Ecuador · Egypt · England · Finland · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong · Iceland · Indonesia · Ireland · Italy · Japan · South Korea · Macao · Malaysia · New Zealand · Nigeria · Singapore · Sweden · Syria · Taiwan (Republic of China) · Turkey · Uruguay · United States
Smoking bans · Smoking bans in private vehicles · Cigarette consumption per capita · Prevalence of tobacco consumption · Passive smoking · Tobacco industry · Tobacco fatwa · Tobacco advertising · Tobacco bowdlerization · Tobacco packaging warning messages · Health effects of tobacco (Nicotine poisoning · Nicotine withdrawal · Health benefits of smoking) · Smoking in Jewish law · Smoking cessation · Smoking age · Youth smoking
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
nicotine poisoning — poisoning by ingestion of excessive amounts of nicotine, such as in children who eat cigarettes, workers who handle wet tobacco leaves, or persons who overuse nicotine gums or patches. Symptoms include stimulation followed by depression of the… … Medical dictionary
nicotine poisoning — poisoning as a result of excessive smoking … English contemporary dictionary
nicotine poisoning — noun toxic condition caused by the ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of nicotine • Hypernyms: ↑poisoning, ↑toxic condition, ↑intoxication … Useful english dictionary
Nicotine withdrawal — Classification and external resources ICD 10 F17.2 ICD 9 292.0 Nicotine withdrawal is a term … Wikipedia
Nicotine (disambiguation) — Nicotine may refer to: Nicotine, an organic compound Nicotine Caffeine, a video game character Nicotinic acid, otherwise known as niacin or Vitamin B3 See also Nicotine gum Nicotine patch Nicotine poisoning … Wikipedia
Nicotine — This article is about the chemical compound. For other uses, see Nicotine (disambiguation). Nicotine Systematic (IUPAC) name … Wikipedia
poisoning — noun 1. the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance • Syn: ↑toxic condition, ↑intoxication • Derivationally related forms: ↑intoxicate (for: ↑intoxication) • Hypernyms: ↑ … Useful english dictionary
nicotine sulfate poisoning — poisoning of lambs or calves by nicotine sulfate, formerly used as a component of vermifuges. Symptoms include tremors, rapid respiration, recumbency, and convulsions; severe cases may end in death … Medical dictionary
nicotine sulfate — the sulfate salt of nicotine, formerly a component of veterinary vermifuges; it can cause poisoning in lambs and calves. See nicotine sulfate poisoning, under poisoning … Medical dictionary
tobacco poisoning — poisoning by tobacco, usually taking the form of nicotine poisoning (q.v.). Called also tabagism and tobaccoism … Medical dictionary