- Color-flavor locking
Color-flavor locking (CFL) is a phenomenon that is expected to occur in ultra-high-density
quark matter. The quarks form Cooper pairs, whose color properties are correlated with their flavor properties in a symmetric pattern. According to the standard modelof particle physics, the color-flavor-locked phase is the highest density phase of three-flavor matter.
Color-flavor-locked Cooper pairing
If each quark is represented as ,with color index taking values 1,2,3 correspondingto red, green, and blue, and flavor index takingvalues 1,2,3 corresponding to up, down, and strange, then the color-flavor lockedpattern of Cooper pairing is [M. Alford, K. Rajagopal and F. Wilczek, "QCD at Finite Baryon Density: Nucleon Droplets and Color Superconductivity" [http://www.arXiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9711395 arxiv:hep-ph/9711395] ,published as Phys. Lett. B422, 247 (1998).]
This means that a Cooper pair of an up quark and a down quark must have colors red and green, and so on. This pairing pattern is special because it leaves a large unbroken symmetry group.
The CFL phase has several remarkable properties,
* It breaks
* It is a
* It is an electromagnetic
insulator, in which there is a "rotated" photon, containing a small admixture of one of the gluons.
* It has the same symmetries as sufficiently dense hyperonic matter.
There are several variants of the CFL phase, representing distortions of the pairing structure in response to external stresses such as a difference between the mass of the strange quark and the mass of the up and down quarks.
* M. Alford, K. Rajagopal, T. Schäfer, A. Schmitt, "Color superconductivity in dense quark matter", [http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.4635 arxiv:0709.4635] , to be published in Reviews of Modern Physics.
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