- Junta of National Reconstruction
The Junta of National Reconstruction ("Junta de Gobierno de Reconstrucción Nacional") officially ruled
Nicaraguafrom July 1979to January 1985, though effective power was in the hands of the Sandinista National Liberation Front's National Directorate.
The Sandinista rebels announced the Junta as its provisional government on
June 16, 1979, as the civil war against the Anastasio Somoza Debayleregime entered its final phase. It was composed of five members: a member of the FSLN directorate, Daniel Ortega; two left-wing activists, Sergio Ramírezand Moisés Hassan; and two right-wing representatives, Alfonso Robeloand Violeta Barrios de Chamorro.
In the first half of July, United States envoy William Bowdler pressured the Sandinistas to broaden the junta by adding additional members, such as
Adolfo Calero, Ismael Reyes, and Mariano Fiallos. The Sandinistas, not wishing to alienate the US, were willing to acquiesce. However, Chamorro and Robelo, representing business and corporate interests, objected to the plan, and it was rejected.
After the fall of Somoza, it quickly became apparent to Robelo and Chamorro that they did not have any real power. Chamorro resigned on
April 19, 1980, followed by Robelo three days later. On May 18, they were replaced by Arturo Cruzand Rafael Córdova Rivas. Cruz would resign in March 1981, though he agreed for a time to be ambassador to the United States. On March 4, Cruz's appointment to Washington was announced, together with Hassan's departure for the Council of State and Ortega's promotion to Coordinator of the now three-member junta. While the junta may have offered little authority to its non-Sandinista members, the public role did help to solidify Ortega's primacy within the FSLN directorate and enhance Ramírez's prominence.
November 4, 1984, a presidential election was held, which was won by leading junta member and revolutionary Daniel Ortega and his running mate, Sergio Ramírez as vice president. However, some opposition parties boycotted it, claiming unfair conditions. While the Reagan administration and many mainstream United States media outlets claimed the election was not free or fair, numerous electoral watchers affiliated with Western European governments, as well as United States non-governmental organizations, declared the results legitimate.cite web
title = On this day: 1984: Sandinistas claim election victory
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/5/newsid_2538000/2538379.stm
accessdate=2007-12-21 ] cite web
title = The Construction of Democracy in Nicaragua
author = Susanne Jonas and Nancy Stein
url = http://lap.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/3/10
accessdate=2007-12-21 ] Ortega took office on
January 10, and the junta was dissolved.
Sandinista National Liberation Front
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