- Talwar class frigate
The "Talwar" class is a new class of
frigates built for the Indian Navy. The Talwar class guided missile frigates, also known as the Type 1135.6, are modified "Krivak III class frigates from Russia. The Talwar Class has a displacement of 4,000 tons and speed of 30 knots and is capable of accomplishing a wide scale of missions, primarily, finding and eliminating enemy submarines and large surface ships.
Due to the use of stealth technologies and a special hull design, the resulting frigate features reduced radar cross section (RCS) as well as electromagnetic, acoustic and infrared signatures. Equipped with Russian-made sensors and weapon systems, the Talwar class frigates are modern ships with balanced capabilities capable of countering modern Western naval assets. The Talwar Class shows Indo-Russian joint production capabilities as the ships of the Class have have quite a few systems of Indian origin and manufacture, including their anti-submarine sensor (sonar) suite and complete communication equipment.
17 November 1997, Russiaand Indiasigned a $1 billion contract, for three "Krivak III" class multi-purpose frigates. The Indian Navywanted to fill the gap created by the decommissioning of the "Leander" class frigates and until the Project 17 Class frigates enter service.
After the signing of the contract,
Severnoye Design Bureaubegan a detail design layout and the shipbuilder, Baltisky Zavod of St. Petersburg began preparations for their construction. The project involved around 130 suppliers from Russia, India, Britain, Germany, Denmark, Belarus, Ukraine and other countries including over 30 St. Petersburg-based naval design organizations and institutes.
The first frigate, INS Talwar was to be delivered in May 2002, the second INS Trishul in November 2002 and the third INS Tabar in May 2003.The Russian firm delayed the delivery of three frigates by 13 months, seven months and 11 months respectively. The contract stipulated levy of liquidated damages for the delays and the same worked out to USD 38.5 million equivalent. This was yet to be recovered as of December 2005.
The Indian government signed a follow-on contract for the purchase of three additional frigates on July 14, 2006. These ships will be built at Yantar Shipyard in Kaliningrad. The first frigate is scheduled for delivery in April 2011. These ships will feature BrahMos supersonic anti-ship cruise missile instead of the Club-N/3M54TE missile system which was provided to the INS Talwar, INS Trishul and INS Tabar frigates.
The Severnoye Design Bureau developed the Project 1135.6 vessel using an earlier Project 1135.1 design, which dated back to the early 1980s. The ship's redesigned topside & hull has considerably reduced radar cross-section. While the superstructure sides are sloped and relatively clean, the very cluttered topside of the ship cannot be remotely described as having any signature reducing features. These frigates will be the first Indian Navy warships to incorporate some stealth features. The ship's hull is characterised by outward flare and tumblehome, while the superstructure (which forms a continuous junction with the hull) has a large fixed tumblehome angle.
The frigates are armed with a new Club attack anti-ship system with a vertical missile launcher, as well as with a RBU-6000 jet bomb launcher, Shtil-1 multi-channel medium-range surface-to-air missile system, a Kashtan anti-aircraft missile and artillery system and Puma-Universal artillery system. The Talwar class are a multi-purpose frigate equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors including the deadly klub type cruise missiles. These ships are designed to carry and operate one heavy duty helicopter.
In the main strike role, an eight-cell 3S14E vertical missile launcher is fitted, which accommodates the 3M-54E Klub-N anti-ship missile developed by the
Novator Design Bureau. The Agat Research and Production Enterprisehas supplied the 3R14N-11356 shipborne fire-control system associated with the Klub-N.
The 3M-54E Klub is an convert|8.22|m|ft long missile using active radar guidance with a range of convert|220|km. It is a three-stage missile in which the terminal stage reaches
supersonicvelocity (Mach 2.9) when it is approximately convert|20|km|abbr=on from its target.
In the future, ships of the class may be also fitted with the
BrahMossupersonic cruise missile.
The Shtil-1 SAM system with a 3S-90 missile launcher is fitted forward of the bridge and is armed with the 9M317 (SA-N-12, navalised SA-17) missile. 24 missiles are carried in a below-decks
magazine. Guidance and target illumination for these missiles is provided by four MR-90 Orekh(NATO: Front Dome) radars, which are connected to a command and control post.
SA-N-12missile uses a combination of inertial guidance and semi-active radar homingto its maximum range of convert|45|km|abbr=on. The convert|70|kg|abbr=on blast-fragmentation warhead is triggered by a radar proximity fuze. The missile's control system and warhead can be adjusted to a specific target following target recognition, which increases hit probability.
Eight Igla-1E (SA-16) portable air defence missiles are also carried.
CIWS (Close-In weapon System)
For the CIWS role, two
KashtanAir Defence Gun/Missile Systems are used. Each system consists of two GSh-30k (AO-18K) six-barreled 30mm Gatling guns, fed by a linkless feeding mechanism, and two SA-N-11(navalised variant of the 9M311, SA-19) SAM clusters. The system also includes a storing and reloading system to keep 32 SAMs in container-launchers in the vessel's under-deck spaces.
A-190(E)gun is fitted forward for use against ship and shore based targets The A-190(E) uses a lightweight gun mount with an automatic gun and fuse setter. Fire control is provided by the 5P-10E Puma FCS. The gun can fire 60 rounds a minute out to a range of convert|8.2|nmi|km|lk=on. The weight of each shell is convert|16|kg.
The gun features higher automation of fire preparation and control and employs advanced guided and rocket-assisted long-range and enhanced-lethality projectiles fitted with dual-mode impact/proximity fuses. Together with the use of the muzzle velocity meter, it is designed to produce increased combat capability. In addition, the gun turret features stealth technology to minimize the radar signature of a ship.
The ships carry the
RPK-8system, which uses a 12 barreled RBU-6000ASW rocket launcher to fire the 212mm 90R anti-submarine rocket or RGB-60 depth charges. The firing range is from 600 to 4300 metres, and the depth of engagement is up to 1000 metres.
Two twin 533mm DTA-53-11356 fixed
torpedotube launchers are fitted amidships and fire the SET-65E/53-65KE torpedoes. The Purga anti-submarine fire-control system provides control for both the RBU-6000 and DTA-53 launchers.
*Surface Search: One 3Ts-25E Garpun-B radar at I-band frequency, using both active and passive channels, provides long-range surface target designation. One MR-212/201-1 radar at I-band frequency is used for navigation and a separate Kelvin Hughes Nucleus-2 6000A radar set is used for short-range navigation and surface surveillance. Also fitted with a Ladoga-ME-11356 inertial navigation and stabilisation suite supplied by Elektropribor.
*Air/Surface Search: One Fregat M2EM (NATO: Top Plate) 3D circular scan radar at E-band frequency, provides target indication to the Shtil-1 missile system. Featuring continuous electronically scanned arrays, the radar rotates at 12 or 6 rpm and has an instrumented range to 300 km.
*Fire Control: Features a Ratep JSC 5P-10E Puma fire control system, comprising of a phased array and target tracking radar along with laser and TV devices. The system - fitted above the bridge deck - features in-flight course correction updates via data links, has a maximum detection range of 60 km, operates autonomously and is capable of automatically locking on to four targets and tracking them.
*BEL APSOH (Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull) hull-mounted sonar is fitted on the vessels. The APSOH sonar performs active ranging, passive listening, auto tracking of targets and classification. Other reports indicate that the BEL HUMSA (Hull Mounted Sonar Array) sonar is fitted. The HUMSA is a panoramic medium-range active/passive sonar system developed by the Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL).
*Information released from the Severnoye Design Bureau (SDB) indicate that French towed array sonars (TAS) are also fitted. This is very plausible given that many Indian Navy ships now use French TAS, however INS Talwar shows no signs of such a system. The vessel may also have an SSN-137 VDS (Variable Depth Sonar), providing active search with medium frequency.
The frigate features the Russian-made TK-25E-5 integrated electronic warfare suite, which comprises a wideband electronic support measures system that has antenna arrays mounted in the superstructure and a multimode jammer. Four KT-216 decoy launchers, forming part of the PK-10 system, are fitted for soft-kill defence. A total of 120 120mm chaff and infrared decoy rounds are carried on board.
Combat Data System
*The Trebovaniye-M combat information and control platform is a fully distributed combat management system. It controls all platforms of attack and defence weapons, independently generates combat missions based on situation analysis, determines optimal number of missile firings, displays information on the state of ship-borne weaponry and transmits data to protection systems.
*Interconnected via an Ethernet LAN, Trebovaniye-M features eight T-171 full-colour operator workstations (with 18-inch colour flat panel displays) and three central T-162 servers. Individual items of combat system equipment interface to Trebovaniye-M via T-119 and T-190 bus interface units. Raw radar data is received through a T-181 data reception unit
The Talwar class can accommodate one Ka-28 Helix-A antisubmarine helicopter or one Ka-31 Helix-B
airborne early warninghelicopter which can provide over-the-horizon targeting. The vessel can also embark the navalised variant of the indigenous HAL Dhruv.
Talwar Features the Zorya designed and Mashproekt (Ukraine) manufactured M7N.1E gas turbine plant which comprises 2 x DS-71 cruise turbines and 2 x DT-59 boost turbines in two engine rooms.
The cruising component consists of two DS-71 gas-turbine engines, each rated at 9000hp in forward running, and 1.500hp in reverse. Two cruising RO63 two-speed gearboxes and one cruising R1063 auxiliary gearbox which makes it possible to use any of the cruising engines to drive both propeller shafts.
A boost component with two DT-59.1 gas-turbine engines, each rated at 19,500 hp forward running, 4500 hp in reverse and two RO58 single-speed reduction gearboxes.
The four gas turbines are mounted on isolated cradles which minimize her contact with the hull and thereby considerably reduce the transmission of her vibration and sound. [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NAVY/Articles/Article13.html]
Electrical power is provided by four 1 MW Wartsila WCM-1000 generator sets with Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1MV AC generators. The contract for the generators was signed with Wartsila Denmark.
*Displacement:3250 tons standard, 4035 tons full load
*Machinery:2 shaft gas turbines, 57,000 hp
*Range:4500 tons at 18 knots
*Armament:8 SSN-27 SSM, 24 SA-N-12 SAM, 2 x Kortik combined 30mm gun & SA-N-11 (32 SAMs) CIWS, 1 x 100mm gun, Twin 533mm torpedo tubes, RBU-6000 ASW RL.
Ka-27ASW or Ka-31 Helix AEW
*Complement:180 (18 officers)
The Indian Govt approved the purchase of three additional Krivak-III Class frigates on
6 July 2006, at a cost of USD $1.1 billion. The first vessel would be delivered five years after the signing of the contract and the following two ships would be delivered within 12 months (in six-month intervals) after the delivery of the first boat. The new Frigates will be fitted with the BrahMos(PJ-10) anti-ship missile in a vertical eight-cell configuration.
* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NAVY/Talwar.html Talwar Class - Bharat Rakshak]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/d-talwar.htm Talwar Class - Global Security]
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