- Cartier SA
Cartier SA is a French jeweller and watch manufacturer that is a subsidiary of Compagnie Financière
RichemontSA. The corporation carries the name of the Cartier family of jewelers whose control ended in 1964 and who were known for numerous pieces including the famousFact|date=May 2008 "Bestiary" (best illustrated by the famous Panthère brooch of the 1940s created for Wallis Simpson), the diamond necklace created for Yadavindra Singhthe Maharaja of Patialaand in 1904 the first practical wristwatch, the "Santos." Cartier SA is headquartered in Paris.
The company has a long and distinguished history of serving royalty, as well as stars and celebities. One Prince of Wales hailed Cartier as "Joaillier des Rois, Roi des Joailliers" (Jeweller to Kings, King of Jewellers"). Cartier received an order for 27 tiaras for the coronation of the future King. King Edward VII was crowned in 1902 and in 1904 he honoured the Company with the royal warrant of supplier to the Royal Court of England. Similar warrants soon followed from the courts of Spain, Portugal, Russia, Siam, Greece, Serbia, Belgium, Romania, Egypt and finally Albania, and also from the House of Orleans and the Principality of Monaco.
Cartier is at present the no. 1 seller of luxury jewellery in the world, and the no. 2 seller of luxury watches (after Rolex).cn|date=July 2008
Cartier was founded in
Parisin 1847 by Louis-François Cartierwhen he took over the workshop of his master.cite web |url= http://www.cartier.com/en/The_Maison_Cartier/history |title= Cartier - History |accessdate= 2008-03-09] In 1874, his son Alfred Cartiertook over the administration of the company, but it was Alfred's sons Louis, Pierre and Jacques, who were responsible for establishing the world-wide brand name of Cartier.
In 1904, the Brazilian aviator, Alberto Santos-Dumont complained of the unreliability and impracticality of using pocket watches while flying to his friend Louis Cartier. Cartier rose to the challenge, designing a flat wristwatch with a distinctive square bezel. This watch was not only a hit with Santos-Dumont, but also with Cartier's many clients. Thus, out of this timeless design, the "Santos" was born. This was the first men's wristwatch (Patek Phillipe made the first wristwatch, but for a woman and as a one-off).
Louis retained responsibility for the
Parisbranch, moving to the Rue de la Paix, in 1899. He was responsible for some of the company's most celebrated designs, like the mystery clocks [cite web |url= http://www.cartier.com/en/The_Maison_Cartier/History/The_mystery_clocks |title= Cartier - The mystery clocks |accessdate= 2008-03-09] (a type of clock with a transparent dial and so named because their works are hidden [cite web |url=http://www.roger-russell.com/mysteryclocks/mysteryclocks.htm |title= Roger Russell's Mystery Clock History Page |accessdate=2008-03-09] ), fashionable wristwatches and exotic orientalist Art Deco designs, including the colorful "Tutti Frutti" jewels.
In 1907, Cartier signed a contract with Edmond Jaeger, who agreed to exclusively supply the movements for Cartier watches. By this time, Cartier had branches in London, New York and St. Petersburg and was quickly becoming one of the most successful watch companies in the world. The introduction of the Baignoire and Tortue models (both of which are still in production today) took place in 1912, followed by the Tank model's debut in 1917. In 1932, they manufactured a watertight watch made especially for the Pasha of Marrakesh. cn|date=July 2008
In 1917, inspired by the newly introduced war machines on the Western Front, Louis Cartier designed the most famous Cartier watch, the
Cartier Tank watch. This line too has survived, with over thirty varieties now being made.
In the early 1920s Cartier formed a joint company with Edward Jaeger (of the famed
Jaeger-LeCoultrecompany) to produce movements solely for Cartier. Thus was the famed European watch & clock company born, although Cartier continued to use movements from other great makers. Cartier watches can be found with movements from Vacheron Constantin, Audemars-Piguet, Movadoand LeCoultre. It was also during this period that Cartier began adding its own reference numbers to the watches it sold, usually by stamping a four-digit code on the underside of a lug. In fact, many collectors refuse to accept a Cartier as original, unless these numbers are present. cn|date=July 2008
Jacques took charge of the London operation and eventually moved to the current address at New Bond Street.
Pierre Cartier established the
New York Citybranch in 1909, moving in 1917 to the current location of 653 Fifth Avenue, the Neo-Renaissancemansion of Morton Freeman Plant (son of railroad tycoon Henry B. Plant) which Cartier bought from the Plants in exchange for $100 in cash and a double-stranded natural pearl necklace valued at the time at $1 million. [cite news |first= David |last= Dunlap |title= Commercial Real Estate; Cartier Spruces Up to Show Off Its Jewels in Style |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9905E5DA1330F935A15757C0A9669C8B63 |publisher= New York Times |date= 2000-04-26 |accessdate=2008-03-09 ]
Among the Cartier team was Charles Jacqueau, who joined
Louis Cartierin 1909 for his entire life, and Jeanne Toussaint, who was Director of Fine Jewelry from 1933 on.
After the death of Pierre in 1964,
Jean-Jacques Cartier(Jacques's son), Claude Cartier(Louis's son), and Marionne Claudelle(Pierre's daughter) — who respectively headed the Cartier affiliates in London, New York and Paris — sold the businesses.
In 1972 a group of investors led by Joseph Kanoui bought Cartier Paris. President Robert Hocq, the creator of the concept of "Les Must de Cartier" (a staff member is said to have said "Cartier, It's a must!" meaning something one simply must have) in collaboration with Alain Dominique Perrin, General Director, began introducing new products representative of the status and quality of the Cartier of the past. In 1974 and 1976 respectively, Cartier London and Cartier New York were bought back. In 1979 the Cartier interests were combined together, creating "Cartier Monde" uniting and controlling Cartier
Paris, Londonand New York.
Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain
Cartier Racing Awards
Cartier Tank watch
* [http://www.cartier.com Cartier]
* [http://culture.hautehorlogerie.org/en/players/brands/cartier/history-460.html History of Cartier]
* [http://culture.hautehorlogerie.org/en/players/brands/cartier/emblematic-models-462.html Emblematic models of Cartier]
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