Street racing


Street racing

Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal auto racing which takes place on public roads. Street racing can either be spontaneous or well-planned and coordinated. Well coordinated races, in comparison, are planned in advance and often have people communicating via 2-way radio/citizens' band radio and using police scanners and GPS units to mark locations of local police hot spots. (See participants, below). Street racing is reported to have originated prior to the 1930s due to alcohol prohibition in some parts of the United States. At the time smugglers of unrefined and illegal alcohol would try to find ways to make more power and achieve better handling from their engine and suspension. Aside from being the basis of stock car racing, this became common after the war, and as a result, it is credited as being the origin of drag racing as well.cite web
last = Lowery A.B. Makkar is the fastest street racer in the world
first = Pat
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = C.R.A.S.H. A Regional Response to Illegal Street Racing
work =
publisher = Kent Washington Police Department
date =
url = http://www.ci.kent.wa.us/police/Traffic/CRASH%20-%20Boston%20presentation.ppt
format = Microsoft PowerPoint
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Q: what is the history of import car speed racing, "the fast and the furious"?
work =
publisher = Google Answers
date =
url = http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=55111
format =
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accessdate = 2007-08-24
] Opponents to street racing cite a lack of safety relative to sanctioned racing events, as well as legal repercussions arising from incidents, among street racing's drawbacks. Most duels are drag races.

Types

Drag Racing

Drag Racing is a legal race which involves two or more competitors who drive in a straight line for a specified distance (usually a 1/4 mile). The driver that covers the most distance between the two cars or reaches the end first is the winner. Fundamental skills in drag racing are the ability to launch with minimum wheelspin and shifting as fast as possible.

A more common form of racing, in which two or more cars compete until one party is the clear winner. This differs from the above mentioned drag race, in which a set distance on a straight road is traversed. Drivers typically line up while moving under the posted speed limit. Once all the cars are ready, one car will sound its horn three times; the third time is the final signal to start the run. A car simply outruns the other vehicles by a considerable margin in order to win. If the winner cannot be determined, it is usually decided upon a mutual agreement, or having another race. Another way to signal a race is by flashing the vehicle's high-beams.

Touge Racing

The sport of drifting and touge racing from (primarily) Japan has led to its acceptance in other parts of the world. Touge (pronounced "toe-gay"; Japanese for "mountain pass," because these races are held on mountain roads and passes) generally refers to racing, one car at a time, or in a chase format through mountain passes (the definition of which varies per locale and racing organization). Examples of such roads include Del Dios Highway [cite web
last =
first =
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coauthors =
title = Elfin Forest-Del Dios-Rancho Sante Fe Ride Directions
work =
publisher = North County Cruisers
date =
url = http://www.northcountycruisers.com/elfintrip.html
format =
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accessdate = 2007-08-24
] in Escondido, California, and Mount Haruna, on the island of Honshū, in Japan. However, street racing competition can lead to more people racing on a given road than would ordinarily be permitted (hence leading to the reputation of danger inherent). Touge races are typically run in a best out of three format. Opponent A starts the first race with Opponent B directly behind. The winner is determined by the time difference between the cars at the finish line. For instance, if Opponent A has pulled away from Opponent B at the finish line, he is determined the winner. If Opponent B has managed to stay on Opponent A's tail, he is determined the winner. For the second race, Opponent B starts off in front and the winner is determined using the same method.

Cannonball Runs

"Cannonball Runs" are legal point-to-point road rallies that involve a handful of racers. They hearken back to the authorized European races at the end of the 19th century. The races died away when the chaotic 1903 Paris-Madrid race was canceled at Bordeaux for safety reasons after numerous fatalities involving drivers and pedestrians. Point-to-point runs reappeared in the United States in the mid 1910s when Erwin George Baker who drove cross-country on record breaking runs that stood for years, being legal at the time, and the term "Cannonball" was penned for him in honor of his runs. Nowadays drivers will race from one part of a town or country to the other side; whoever makes the fastest overall time is the winner. A perfect example of an illegal road race was the 1970s original Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash, aka "The Cannonball Run", that long-time automotive journalist Brock Yates founded. The exploits spawned numerous films, the best known being "The Cannonball Run". Several years after the notorious "Cannonball", Yates created the family-friendly and somewhat legal version One Lap of America where speeding occurs in race circuits and is still running to this day. In modern society it is rather difficult if not impossible to organize an illegal and extremely dangerous road race, there are still a few events which may be considered racing, such as the Gumball 3000, Gumball Rally, and Players Run races. These "races", better known as rallies for legality's sake, mostly comprise wealthy individuals racing sports cars across the country for fun. The AKA Rally however, is designed for individuals with a smaller budget (approximately $3000). Entrance fees to these events are usually all inclusive (hotels, food, and events). Participants 'rally' together from a start point to predetermined locations until they arrive at the finish line. The AKA Rally in particular has organized driver oriented events e.g., autocross or drag strip races, away from public roads to minimize the risk of drivers getting too enthusiastic on public roads. The latter racing community has even spawned numerous TV and video series including the "Mischief" film series and "Bullrun" reality TV Show. The AKA Rally was featured on MTV in a 2004 True Life episode and is being filmed in 2008 for an upcoming 6 part series on the Speed TV network. [imdb title|id=0472231|title=Mischief 3000] The Cannonball run type race also spawned numerous games of its type, most famously Sega's "OutRun" arcade game. It was also parodied in the 1960s-70s Hanna-Barbera series Wacky Races.

Terminology

:"An "official" lexicon of street racing terminology is difficult to establish as terminology differs by location."

Any or all of the below mentioned activities may be considered illegal, depending on location of the race.

In addition to the people racers, there are generally observers present at organized street races. A flagger [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Will these work?
work =
publisher = VAdriven.com
date = 2007
url = http://www.vadriven.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-89201.html
format =
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accessdate = 2007-08-24
] [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Racing tickets
work =
publisher = Street Racing Online
date = 2007
url = http://www.sromagazine.com/boards/showthread.php?t=8066
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] starts the race; this is typically accomplished by standing in front of the vehicles and making an up-down motion with the arms indicating the race should begin. There are variations on this theme, including the throwing/dropping of a handkerchief, ribbon, and so on. This act would be analogous to the "tree" in a typical sanctioned drag race, and has been portrayed widely in popular culture, from ZZ Top music videos to American cinema.

Race specifics

A dig may refer to all participants toeing a line, aligning the front bumper of the vehicles, after which all vehicles race from a stop to a pre-arranged point (typically a quarter mile in the United States, but may vary by locale).

A roll generally refers to a race which starts at a non-zero speed, and continues until all but one participant have stopped racing. This may be accompanied by three honks which would be analogous to a countdown.

To be set out lengths is a system of handicapping that allows a slower car to start their race a number of car lengths ahead and requiring the faster car to catch up and pass the slower car. There are often heated negotiations to determine a fair number.

To get the break, kick, or move is to start the race without the flagger. This is another system of handicapping that requires one car to wait until they see the other car start to move before they are allowed to leave their starting line.

To jump is to leave the line before the flagger has started the race, either with his/her hands, a flashlight, dropping a shirt, etc. Generally if a racer jumps, the other racer has the option to sit at the starting line. If the flagger agrees that a racer jumped then usually the race is redone. If both racers leave the starting line, regardless if one or both jumped the race is considered legitimate. Also known as the hit.

Motivations

There are various motivations for street racing, but typically cited reasons include: [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors = Kenneth J. Peak and Ronald W. Glensor
title = The Problem of Street Racing
work = Street Racing Guide No.28
publisher = Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (COPS)
date = 2004
url = http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/problem-street_racing.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
]
* Generally, street racing is not sanctioned and thus leads to a less rigorously controlled environment than sanctioned racing, to the enjoyment of some participants.
* Street racing is cited as an activity which is available to people who are otherwise under-age for entertainment at traditional venues such as bars.
* A community generally springs up around the street racing "scene", providing social interaction among the participants and cliques therein.
* The opportunity to show off ones vehicle
* The simple and uncomplicated excitement of racing without the entry fees, rules and politics, typical of the sport.
* The excitement of racing when law enforcement is certain to give chase.
* A lack of proper, sanctioned racing venues in the locale.
* Street races are sometimes wagered on, either by the participants or observers. This is the origin of the term "racing for pink slips" (which means that the winner keeps the opponent's car), which inspired the 2005 Speed Channel series Pinks. This, in real life, seldom happens; most wagers involve cash (as in ).
* To settle a bet, dispute, etc between fellow racers (ex. one believes that they are the better person, vice versa, and turns into an argument, which leads to a race (if it comes down to that)).

The Kent, Washington police department lists the following consequences of street racing:

* Traffic collisions, including fatalitiescite web
last = Tanglao
first = Leezel
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 'Take it to the tracks,' street racers told
work =
publisher = The Press Enterprise
date = 2007
url = http://www.pe.com/localnews/inland/stories/PE_News_Local_H_race15.84df73.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
]
* Trespassing on private property
* Property loss from theft and vandalism
* Auto theft rates, carjackings
* Increased gang activity

Because vehicles used in street racing competitions generally lack professional racing safety equipment such as roll cages and racing fuel cell and drivers seldom wear fire suits and are not trained in high-performance driving, injuries and fatalities are common results from accidents. Furthermore, illegal street racers put ordinary drivers at risk because they race on public roads rather than closed-course, purpose-built facilities, such as Pacific Raceways in the aforementioned city.

Because racing occurs in areas where it is not sanctioned, extensive wear can occur to the roads (from high-powered vehicles damaging the asphalt) and damage to the fences/gates closing the area off (in the case of industrial parks, etc). Further, as the street racing culture places a very high social value on a fast vehicle, people who might not otherwise be able to afford blazingly fast but very expensive vehicles—such as the Holden MonaroFact|date=March 2008 and Honda/Acura NSX—may attempt to steal them, violently or otherwise. Additionally, street racers tend to form teams which participate in racing together, the implication above is that these teams may be a form of organized crime or gang activity.

Worth noting is that the astronomical theft rate of the Acura Integra and other popular street racing cars is associated with street racing [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = US: Top Stolen Cars, Cities With Highest Thefts
work =
publisher = The Auto Channel
date = 2006
url = http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2006/08/22/019503.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = What thieves have their eyes on
work =
publisher = CBC News Online
date = 2005-07-19
url = http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/stolen_cars/
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] , in addition to the usual claims of chop shops. [ [http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/test4/?table_sort_759984=-2 III - Auto Theft ] ]

By country

Australia

Street racing in Australia is most prevalent across the country most notably in the lower socio-economic suburbs of the main cities and semi-rural NSW and Victoria. People who participate, specifically the drivers themselves, are referred to as hoons or 'boyracers' in both Australia and New Zealand. The term is also used as a verb to describe reckless and dangerous driving in general ("to hoon" or "to hoon around").

Street racing began in the late 1960s as the local vehicle manufacturers (Ford Australia, Chrysler Australia and Holden) began creating performance versions of their family cars both for attracting the growing youth market and meeting racing homolgation requirements. Vehicles such as the Chrysler Valiant Pacer offered strong performance at an affordable price. While V8's were popular most street-racers concentrated on tuning the locally designed and built Chrysler 265ci Hemi, Holden 202ci and Ford 250ci six cylinder engines used in the Chrylser Valiant, Chrysler Charger, Holden Torana, Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon.

Laws exist in all states and territories that limit modifications done to vehicles and prohibit having nitrous oxide hooked up to, or even present inside a car. In most states further laws impose strong penalties for street racing such as confiscating/impounding the vehicle and loss of license.

In Queensland there is an ever growing scene that is gradually gaining popularity. There are many places where races are held in Brisbane proving to be one of the more popular in the south side in places such as Ipswich or Logan. Fact|date=June 2008

Canada

Street racing in Ontario has become a serious issue that has taken a number of lives. In response the government of Ontario has implemented a strict new Street Racing law. This law encompasses not only street racing itself, but any driving of 50km over the speed limit. If you are charged with such an infraction your automobile is seized and impounded for 1 week and your licence is suspended for the same period. Towing fees, impound fees and insurance rate increases are all automatically imposed. This has lead to a great deal of criticism in that the police have the power to seize a vehicle contrary to the Constitution. Essentially the punishment is given before conviction. If acquitted, the innocent driver has effectively been punished for a crime he/she did not commit. If convicted of Racing, you will face fines of two to ten thousand dollars, a licence suspension of up to two years, 7 demerit points against your licence and possible jail time.

In Alberta, alleged street racers posted up videos on Youtube showing how they reached speeds of 200 km/h on private roads. As the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) knows that there are no "private roads" in that province, they launched an investigation and seized several vehicles. [ [http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20070814/speeding_Calgary_070814/20070814?hub=CTVNewsAt11] ]

China

Street racing in Hong Kong is very much the same to that in other Asian countries and tends to consist mostly of modified Japanese cars and motorcycles. The Hong Kong Police Force, responsible for road safety, are in the practice of placing roadblocks in areas where this commonly occurs.

The Hong Kong street racing scene has spawned numerous movies that have sequences of street racing.

Croatia

Street racing in Zagreb currently presents a big community problem and a problem for the police. The lack of race tracks nearby is evident, since the only legal race track open for public is in Grobnik near Rijeka, a 150 km drive. Due to this problem, car racing enthusiasts often race at night on avenues. Dubrovnik Avenue is a common racing location due to the number of lanes and very low traffic after the evening rush hour. Due to its isolation and the lack of curves, Mičevec Road is also a common place for illegal racing. Sometimes large events involving 20 or more racers are illegally organized on highways leading to or from Zagreb or on the Zagreb bypass. Police usually make more effort to stop these events than to bother with avenue racing. All events take place during the night, so the street racing is usually unknown to most of the public not minding the occasional newspaper articles. Home movies depicting races are frequently posted on YouTube, but often removed. Police cannot take legal action against racers based on these movies since digital video isn't accepted as legal evidence in a court of law.

Japan

Street racers, known natively as hashiriya (走り屋),cite web |last= Nakashima |first= Ryan |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Hot rod 'tribes' roar into the night |work= |publisher=The Japan Times |date=2001-03-25 |url=http://www.jingai.com/omoshiroi/hotrod.html |format= |doi= |accessdate=2007-08-24] often occur on expressways and highways, where they are known as kousoku battle or commonly known as Roulette-zoku as they drive round and round on circular expressways and frequently occur on the Shuto Expressway in Tokyo. Japanese racers have also popularized racing along the narrow winding roads of the mountains of the country, known as Touge.

The most notorious group to be associated with street racing was the Mid Night Club who gave street racing worldwide attention with its convert|300|km/h|mph|-1|sp=on|abbr=on antics. It was known for its high standards and organization until they were disbanded in 1999 following a fatal accident involving a group of motorcyclists. The expressway racing scene is portrayed in the manga "Wangan Midnight", as well as in the biographical (Tsuchiya) "Shuto Kousoku Trial".

With heavier punishments, patrolling police cars, crackdowns in meeting areas and the installation of speed cameras, expressway racing in Japan is not as common today as it was during the 80s and 90s. Still, it occurs on a not so regular basis. Persistent racers often install spring assisted license-plate swivelling mechanisms that hold plates down at speed or picture-proof screens over their plates. In 2001, the amount of "hashiriya" dropped from 9,624 (in 1995) to 4,365 and police arrests in areas where "hashiriya" gather are common. Cars are checked for illegal modification and if found, owners are fined and forced to remove the offending modifications.

One of the causes of street racing in Japan is that, despite the numerous and famous race circuits, they can become overcrowded. Furthermore, such circuits may cost as much as ¥20,000 to race, while a highway toll may cost less than ¥1,000. Also, with Japan's high cost of living; many young drivers prefer to put their money into savings, or take out loans on their vehicles where they would usually gather with like minded people at either the Shibaura parking area, the Tatsumi parking area or the best known Yokohama Daikoku Futo service area.

As in other countries, street racing also occurs on long straights in industrial areas, which are used for drag races, known natively as Zero-Yon (ゼロヨン) for "0-400" (meters; in America, racing to a quarter-mile, 1320 feet, or 402 meters, is the norm), "Yon" is Japanese for "4". This practice gave its name to a 90s popular game franchise, "Zero4 Champ series".

Malaysia

Street racing in Malaysia is illegal, as is watching a street race; this is enforced by the Malaysian police. Many streets, roads, highways and expressways in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Penang, Johor Bahru and other cities have become sites for racing. Among the participants are teenagers driving modified cars or riding motorcycles.

Motorcycle street racers in Malaysia are also known as Mat Rempit in Malay Language. These Mat Rempit are infamous for their "Superman" stunts and other feats performed on their motorcycles. They are also notorious for their "Cilok", a kind of racing in which racers weave in-between moving and stationary traffic at high-speed. In addition to doing their stunts and racing around, they have a habit of causing public disorder. They usually travel in large groups and at times raid isolated petrol stations. They can cordon off normal traffic flow to allow their friends race along a predetermined circuit.

Most illegal car racers in Malaysia use modified common cars or bargain performance cars such as the Proton Saga, Proton Wira, Proton Satria, Proton Waja, Perodua Kancil or other Japanese cars such as the first-generation Nissan Cefiro, old Honda Civics, and old Toyota Corollas. Illegal drift racing often takes place on dangerous hill roads such as Bukit Tinggi, Genting Highlands, Cameron Highlands or Teluk Bahang, Penang. Meanwhile, illegal drag racing takes place on expressways such as the Second Link Expressway in Johor Bahru. Illegal racers can be distinguished by their over-modified vehicles which do not follow road regulations in Malaysia.

On 12 July 2006, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link in Johor became a venue of illegal racing. The Johor police and the Road Transport Department, together with the highway operator PLUS Expressway, have launched major operations to crack down on illegal racing. More than 600 people have been arrested in these operations and were composed of Malaysians and Singaporeans. [Citation
last = Meisan
first = Lau
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Swoop on illegal racers
newspaper = New Straits Times
pages =
year =
date = 2006-07-10
url =
]

Philippines

The rapid increase in motorcycle and scooter ownership (because of its relatively cheap and easy way to purchase one) also encouraged the growth of illegal motorcycle street racing in the Philippines. Scooters of 125 cc displacement (notably the Honda XRM) are modified for performance, or simply strip it to its bare bones, even fitting engines from more powerful motorcycles like the Honda TMX, for the sake of racing. These races are often done in the Mat Rempit style. Honda noticed this trend, hence prompting them to release the Honda Bravo.Fact|date=May 2008 Races are usually held at night on highways with long straights. While modification for the sake of aesthetics (concourse d'elegance) is legal in the Philippines, drag races are illegal and are being stopped by authorities. These drag races are, however, being dampened by sanctioned races sponsored by big companies. Some illegal racing involving 50cc scooters happened as early as the 1990s until it was officially sanctioned.

Automobile street racing existed in the Philippines as early as the 1970s and was brought back then became widespread in the late 90's. It is held mostly in the main highways of Metro Manila in areas such as Sucat, Greenhills, C5 road and Marcos Highway as well as Sta. Rosa Laguna which is south of Manila. Accidents resulting from illegal street racing in these areas prompted authorities to heighten police presence, impose stricter fines and impound vehicles. Hondas are a favorite among Filipino street racers most notably the Civic SiR which were sometimes transplanted with bigger engines. Other cars such as the Honda Accord, Toyota Corolla and the Nissan Sentra are also used as well as high performance cars like the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution and Subaru Impreza. Car enthusiasts took these illegal races to the strip and organizations such as PDRF (Philippine Drag Racing Federation) was formed to promote drag racing as a SAFE and FUN-FILLED motorsport.

weden

Street races are most commonly done between two stoplights or over 1/4 or 1/8 mile (402 or 201 meters). Street racing was very popular in the 1980s but during the 1990s many drivers abandoned the illegal street races for legal races at Tullinge Raceway. In late 1990s the interest in street racing increased. Causes given include the movie "The Fast and the Furious" and the internet based community Zatzy. A legal form of street racing called "blackrace" has also been introduced. They are run on closed streets and race against the clock (although two cars start at the same time). Two of the most popular raced in Sweden are Volvos and Saabs. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Home Page
work =
publisher = Blackrace.nu
date =
url = http://www.blackrace.nu
format =
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accessdate = 2007-08-24
] In 2006, Stockholm's dragstrip, the "Tullinge Raceway", closed its gates.The most well-known competition is "Birka Cup" among with the legendary "Stockholm Open" race, that runs on the first weekend of September, where there are participants from Nordic countries. The number of attending racers ranges from 15-30; most cars capable of running sub 9-sec quarter mile runs. The rules are simple: "Run what you brought", which is to say that there are very few regulations.

The fee to participate in a race ranges from 300-500sek (approx. 60 USD)

Worth noting is the series of films, Getaway in Stockholm, a popular [ [http://www.vodcars.com/post/1308/getaway-in-stockholm-7 Getaway in Stockholm 7 | VOD Cars - Fast Cars. Hot Cars. Cool Cars. The #1 Broadband Car Network ] ] [ [http://bimmervideo.com/popular.php BMW Videos, BMW Movies, BWM Films, BMW Media - Most Popular BMW Videos ] ] series of videos portraying professional drivers illegally racing and evading police [ [http://www.getawayinstockholm.com/center_r_faq.htm Untitled Document ] ] in Sweden. This series of movies is up to eight movies now and also worked as inspiration to the video game Project Gotham Racing 2.

United Kingdom

Under new traffic laws, street racing is illegal on virtually any road, but is still very common despite efforts from police and councils. In street racing hot-spots local authorities have installed automatic speed cameras, however many of these get vandalised and made inoperable, in many hot-spots police patrols are heavily increased at night with high performance vehicles at their use. It is not illegal if performed on a racing circuit. People who have large gardens or fields, usually in the country, may create their own dirt tracks for minimotos or minibikes.

United States

There is a strong racing culture in California,cite web
last = Tanglao
first = Leezel
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = 'Take it to the tracks,' street racers told
work =
publisher = The Press Enterprise
date = 2007
url = http://www.pe.com/localnews/inland/stories/PE_News_Local_H_race15.84df73.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] particularly Southern California. It is considered to be the birthplace of North American drag racing [cite web
last = Ramirez
first = Steve
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Where did they go?
work =
publisher = Competition Plus
date = 2006
url = http://www.competitionplus.com/2006_08/so_cal_strips.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] . This area was covered in some depth by magazinesFact|date=February 2007 such as "Turbo and Hi-Tech Performance" and "Sport Compact Car" in the late 1990s.Fact|date=February 2007

In some cases, this popularity has led to tough anti-street racing laws which give more strict punishments (including misdemeanors for attending race events) than normal traffic citations and also often involve dedicated anti-racing task forces. San Diego, in Southern California was the first US city to allow the arrest of spectators attending street races.Cite journal
last =Worrall
first =John L. .
authorlink =
coauthors =Stephen G. Tibbetts
title = Explaining San Diego's Decline in Illegal Street-RacingCasualties
journal =Justice Quarterly
volume =23
issue =4
pages =530–544
publisher =Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
location =
date =2006-12-01
doi =10.1080/07418820600985370
id =
accessdate =
] In 2005, a law in Tennessee was passed prohibiting cars to have nitrous oxide hooked up to, or even present inside a car.Fact|date=February 2007 Penalties for violating street racing laws now can include impoundment of the offending vehicle and/or the suspension or revocation of the offender's drivers license.

Some police departments in the United States have also undertaken community outreach programs to work with the racing community to educate them to the dangers of street racing, as well as to encourage them to race in sanctioned events. This has also led to a campaign introduced in 2000 called RASR "(Racers Against Street Racing)" a grass-roots enthusiast group consisting of auto manufacturers, after market parts companies, professional drag racers, sanctioning bodies, race tracks and automotive magazines devoted to promoting the use of safe and legal raceways as an alternative to street racing. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Home Page
work =
publisher = Racers Against Street Racing
date =
url = http://www.rasr.info/
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] [cite web
last = Memmolo
first = Sam
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Racers Against Street Racing (RASR) Launches Teen Education Program About Legal Alternatives to Hazardous Street-Racing Practices
work = retard
publisher =
date = 2003-05-22
url = http://www.shadetreemechanic.com/curtail%20illegal%20street%20racing.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-08-24
] Kent's "Beat the Heat" is a typical example of this type of program. Other such alliances have been forged in southern and central California, reducing the incidence of street racing there.

Some police departments have lost control of the events, thus they make public safety the priority.Fact|date=September 2008 Allowing racing and keeping safe public traffic flow becomes the priority in areas less used at night.Fact|date=September 2008

There are a few online community web sites where racers can upload videos of their activities. These sites generally promote illegal driving behaviors and materials.Fact|date=September 2008

Popular media

Movies

*Death Race 2000
*The Fast and the Furious
*2 Fast 2 Furious
*
*The Fast and the Furious 4
*1320 A West Coast Story
*Initial D Live Movie

"The Fast and the Furious" movie series played a huge role in the import racing scene movement. The main theme was an import car that was high modified that was ready for the show as well as the go. Seeing these cars made every racer want some kind of small compact car that they could customize and change the appearance of the vehicle. This series featured several cars such as the Mitsubishi Eclipse and Lancer Evolution, as well as the Toyota Supra, Mazda RX-7, and the Nissan Skyline GT-R. The movies covered everything from drifting, legal and illegal street racing, to high speed car chase scenes. They race for money, cars, respect, their friend's lives as well as their own.

Anime

*Initial D - First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Special Stages
*Wangan Midnight

Video games

The street racing video game series "Midnight Club" has been very successful in the market and is available on many platforms. This series includes the first title "Midnight Club" for the PlayStation 2 and Game Boy Advance; "Midnight Club II" for the PlayStation 2, PC and Xbox; and ' for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and then later released on the PlayStation Portable. ' was later released for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. "" was the first of the series to be released on seventh generation video game consoles.

Several missions in the popular video game "Grand Theft Auto" series see the player participating in races on the city streets. While a few are mandatory, most are offered as side-missions that the player can undertake to earn money.

The "Need for Speed" series includes several later titles affiliated with street racing. Among them, the "Underground" series (encompassing ' and '), takes place at night in various urban areas, but lacks any police to pursue the player. ' reintroduces police pursuit into gameplay and is set in daytime. It also draws controversy by encouraging the player to damage police cars by any means necessary to acquire points. The next "Need for Speed" title, ' sees the return of night time racing and features police pursuits, although not mandatory to damage police cars as in the previous installment. The latest "Need for Speed" title, ' has gotten rid of the illegal street racing, and is now entirely legal, closed-track races, with no police involvement - much to the disappointment of some of the series' fans (and worse reviews by most game reviewing companies [http://www.gamespot.com/xbox360/driving/needforspeed/index.html?tag=result;title;4 "ProStreet is a solid racing game, but it's missing most of what made the previous games in the series interesting."] ). The upcoming title ' does return to illegal street racing and features gameplay simliar to Most Wanted. Unlike Most Wanted this time the plot involes a undercover police officer who is trying to breakup a international crime ring.

The popular multi-platform (Playstation 2, Playstation 3, Xbox 360, Xbox, PSP, GameCube) series "Burnout" showcases fictional cars racing at highspeed through traffic, with crashes rewarded by highly detailed slow motion destruction sequences. Later iterations include specific competition modes rewarding the largest monetary damage toll in specifically designed maps.

Another game that has street racing is "Juiced" by THQ. The game mentions that is was developed with the intention of giving the gamer the thrill of high-speed driving.

To meet commercial expectations, these games often compromise the realism of the car handling physics to give the user an easier game play experience, which is an asset to the game's enjoyment by general users (and helps the game to sell well).

The greatest disparity is that most games have the player's vehicle completely indestructible, where it's possible to crash head-on at high speeds with another vehicle and continue driving as if nothing had happened.

The indestructible car from those games makes possible to devise strategies that would be impossible in real life, such as using a wall to stop lateral velocity through a turn — rather than picking an appropriate line, which takes more skill, and slows the vehicle down, sometimes substantially. By using the wall, the user is able to halt lateral velocity, while retaining axial acceleration, thus exiting the corner at a much higher speed than braking, turning, and accelerating.

This lack of realism could give gamers a different impression of driving in real life. [cite web |title=NFS found in fatal drag-racing car crash |publisher=Gamespot.com |url=http://www.gamespot.com/ps2/driving/needforspeedmostwanted/news.html?sid=6143195&cpage=3 |accessdate=2007-08-24 ] [cite web |title=Street-racing tragedy ands cabbie's Cdn. dream |publisher=CTV.ca |date=2006-01-26 |url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20060125/street_race_060125/20060125 |accessdate=2007-08-24 ]

In a German-made game, "Emergency 3", one campaign mission features an illegal road race. However, the mission is not a first-person race to avoid police, but rather a third person game that requires the player to coordinate emergency forces. In this case, the mission requires the player to arrest the drivers, put out the fire from a car accident, and treat the injured.

A game highly based on Japanese mountain road racing is "Initial D", an arcade game using real Japanese mountain road settings.

Another of these Japanese racing games is Wangan Midnight, which involves racing along wangans, or bayside expressways or roads.

The "Cruis'n" series also associated with street racing. It starts with the "Cruis'n" on the Wii. This game has several references to street racing like real cars and an upgrading system such as spoilers, decals, neon lights, ground effects, and engines. Sometimes during the game you can use the nitrous oxide, otherwise known as "N2O" or simply "Nitrous,". However, the player is limited to the number of times the nitrous boost can be used. Like the past Cruis'n games you can players race down one-way courses consisting of streets based on real-life locations while avoiding various road hazards such as oncoming traffic and construction. However unlike Need For Speed there is not pursuit system nor car damage.

ee also

* 1320 A West Coast Story
* Café Racer
* Car customizing
* Cruising (driving)
* Import Scene
* Sleeper (car)
* Tafheet
* UK Term: Boy racer
* Australian term: Hoon
* Initial D
* Initial D Arcade Stage
* The Fast and the Furious film series
* Pinks, a television programme inspired by street racing held on drag strips.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

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