- Scheffé's method
**Scheffé's method**, named forHenry Scheffé , is a single-stepmultiple comparison procedure which applies to the set of estimates of all possible contrasts among the factor level means, not just the pairwise differences considered by theTukey-Kramer method .An arbitrary contrast is defined by:$C\; =\; sum\_\{i=1\}^r\; c\_imu\_i$where:$sum\_\{i=1\}^r\; c\_i\; =\; 0.$Technically there are infinitely many contrasts. The simultaneous confidence coefficient is exactly 1 − α, whether the factor level sample sizes are equal or unequal. (Usually only a finite number of comparisons are of interest. In this case, Scheffé's method is typically quite conservative, and the experimental error rate will generally be much smaller than α.)Scott E. Maxwell and Harold D. Delaney. "Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison". Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, ISBN 0805837183, pp. 217–218.] George A. Milliken and Dallas E. Johnson. "Analysis of Messy Data". CRC Press, 1993, ISBN 0412990814, pp. 35–36.]

We estimate "C" by:$hat\{C\}\; =\; sum\_\{i=1\}^r\; c\_iar\{Y\}\_i$

for which the estimated variance is:$s\_\{hat\{C^2\; =\; hat\{sigma\}\_e^2sum\_\{i=1\}^r\; frac\{c\_i^2\}\{n\_i\}.$

It can be shown that the probability is 1 − α that all confidence limits of the type

:$hat\{C\}pmsqrt\{left(r-1\; ight)F\_\{alpha;r-1;N-r,s\_\{hat\{C$

are correct simultaneously.

**Comparison with the Tukey-Kramer method**If only pairwise comparisons are to be made, the

Tukey-Kramer method will result in a narrower confidence limit, which is preferable. In the general case when many or all contrasts might be of interest, the Scheffé method tends to give narrower confidence limits and is therefore the preferred method.**References****External links*** [

*http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/prc/section4/prc472.htm Scheffé's method*]

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