Glúniairn (d. 989), in Old Norse Járnkné, was a
Norse-Gael king of Dublinof the Uí Ímairkindred which ruled over much of the Scandinavianised and Norse-Gael parts of Great Britainand Irelandin the tenth century.
Glúniairn was a son of
Amlaíb Cuarán(d. after 980) who abdicated as king of Dublin following his defeat at the Battle of Tarain 980 and the subsequent capture of Dublinby Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaillof Clann Cholmáin, the High King of Ireland. Olaf retired to Ionawhere he probably became a monk and later died. Glúniairn and Máel Sechnaill were both sons of Dúnlaith, sister of the previous High King, Domnall ua Néillof Cenél nEógain, and Máel Sechnaill appointed his half-brother to rule in Dublinas his client. Máel Sechnaill removed many of the hostages and captives that Amlaíb Cuarán had held in Dublin, including Domnall Clóen, King of Leinster. [Downham, "Viking Kings", pp. 51–52; Hudson, "Viking Pirates", pp. 52–54. For family relationships, see: Downham, "Viking Kings", p. 29, fig. 6; Hudson, "Viking Pirates", p. 49, fig. 2.]
It is likely that Glúniairn benefited substantially from the support of his half-brother, and this support extended beyond that which placed him in power in Dublin in 980 over the claims of his many half-brothers. Domnall Clóen, together with Glúniairn's distant kinsman
Ímar of Waterford, faced Máel Sechnaill and Glúniairn in battle in 983, and defeated their enemies, Ímar's son Gilla Pátraic being one of the many dead in this rout. Máel Sechnaill's army ravaged across Leinsterwhile Glúniairn's men attacked the church at Glendalough. [Downham, "Viking Kings", p. 252; Hudson, "Viking Pirates", pp. 81–82.]
In 989 Glúniairn was "killed when drunk by his own slave", his killer's name being given as Colban in
Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh's " Chronicon Scotorum". [Downham, "Viking Kings", p. 252.] Benjamin Hudsonsuggests that the reports of the killing in the Irish annals, and particularly Máel Sechnaill's rapid riposte, argue that Glúniairn's death was more probably the result of factional infighting in Dublin. The annals record that Máel Sechnaill attacked Dublin, brushing aside resistance. He demanded, and received, the payment of "eraic", a term in early Irish lawcorresponding approximately with Anglo-Saxon wergild. He retained a third for himself, which is what the law would prescribe for a ruler or nobleman acting to enforce payment. He installed another son of Amlaíb Cuarán, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, to rule Dublin. [Hudson, "Viking Pirates", p. 82; "Chronicon Scotorum", CS 989.]
Glúniairn had at least one full sibling, a sister named Ragnhild who married a son of
Congalach Cnogba. [Hudson, "Viking Pirates", p. 49, fig. 2.] Glúniairn's son Gilla Ciaráin died in 1014 at the battle of Clontarf. [Downham, "Viking Kings", pp.251–252; Hudson, "Viking Pirates", p. 83, figure 3.] He had a second son, who may have been called Sitriuc, who is recorded as killing Gofraid, son of Sigtrygg Silkbeard, in Walesin 1036. This son was perhaps the father of Gofraid (died circa 1070), a ruler of the Isle of Manwho is said to have given refuge to Godred Crovan. This Gofraid had a son named Fingal who also ruled Man and died in 1079. Some interpretations would make Macc Congail, who ruled the kingdom of the Rhinns, Fingal's son. [Hudson, "Viking Pirates", pp. 170–172.]
*citation |url=http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100016/ |title=Chronicon Scotorum |accessdate=2007-10-29 |date=2003 |publisher=CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts
*citation |last=Woolf |first=Alex |author-link=Alex Woolf |title=From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070 |date=2007 |series=The New Edinburgh History of Scotland |publisher=Edinburgh University Press |location=Edinburgh |isbn=0-7486-1234-5
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