- Henry the Fowler
Henry I the Fowler ( _de. Heinrich der Finkler or "Heinrich der Vogler"; _la. Henricius Auceps) (876 –
2 July 936) was the duke of Saxonyfrom 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death. First of the Ottonian Dynastyof German kings and emperors, he is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" [A fowler is one who hunts wildfowl.] because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king.
Memleben, in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, and his wife Hedwiga, daughter of Henry of Franconiaand Ingeltrude and a great-great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. In 906 he married Hatheburg, daughter of the Saxon count Erwin, but divorced her in 909, after she had given birth to his son Thankmar. Later that year he married St Matilda of Ringelheim, daughter of Dietrich, count in Westphalia. St Matilda bore him one son called Otto and two daughters, Hedwige and Gerberga and founded many religious institutions, including the abbey of Quedlinburg where Henry is buried, and was later canonized.
Henry became duke of Saxony upon his father's death in 912. An able ruler, he continued to strengthen Saxony, frequently in conflict with his neighbors to the South, the dukes of
In 918 Conrad I, king of the East-Francian Empire and duke of Franconia, died. Although they had been at odds with each other from 912–15 over the title to lands in
Thuringia, before he died Conrad had recommended Henry as his successor and king. Conrad's choice was conveyed by Duke Eberhard of Franconia, Conrad's brother and heir, at the Reichstag of Fritzlarin 919. The assembled Franconian and Saxon nobles duly elected Henry to be king. Henry refused to be anointed by a high church official — the only king of his time not to undergo that rite — allegedly because he did not wish to be king by the church's but by the people's acclaim. Duke Burchard II of Swabiasoon swore fealty to the new king, but duke Arnulf of Bavariadid not submit until Henry invaded Bavaria in 921.
Henry regarded the kingdom as a confederation of
stem duchiesrather than as a feudal kingdom and saw himself as " primus inter pares". Instead of seeking to administer the empire through counts, as Charlemagne had done and as his successors had attempted, Henry allowed the dukes of Franconia, Swabia and Bavaria to maintain complete internal control of their holdings. In 925 he defeated Giselbert, duke of Lotharingia(Lorraine), and brought that realm, which had been lost in 910, back into the German kingdom as the fifth stem duchy (the others being Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, and Bavaria). Allowing Giselbert to remain in power as duke of Lotharingia, Henry arranged the marriage of his daughter Gerberga of Saxonyto his new vassal in 928.
Henry was an able military leader. In 924 he paid a tribute to the Magyars (Hungarians), who had repeatedly raided Germany, and thereby secured a ten-year truce so that he could fortify towns and train a new elite cavalry force. During the truce with the Magyars, Henry conquered the
Havelliand the Daleminziin 928 and put down a rebellion in Bohemiain 929. When the Magyarsbegan raiding again, he led an army of all German tribes to victory at the battle of Riadein 933 near the river Unstrut, stopping their advance into Germany. He also pacified territories to the north, where the Danes had harried the Frisiansby sea. The monk and historian Widukind of Corveyin his "Res gestae Saxonicae" reports that the Danes were subjects of Henry the Fowler. Henry incorporated into his kingdom territories held by the Wends, who together with the Danes had attacked Germany, and also conquered Schleswigin 934.
Death and aftermath
Henry died of a cerebral stroke on
2 July 936in his palatium in Memleben, one of his favourite places. By then all German tribes were united in a single kingdom. Henry I is therefore considered the first German king and the founder of the eventual Holy Roman Empire. He has sometimes been considered as Henry I, Holy Roman Emperor.
His son Otto succeeded him as Emperor. His second son, Henry, became duke of Bavaria. A third son, Brun (or Bruno), became
archbishop of Cologne. His son from his first marriage, Thankmar, rebelled against his half-brother Otto and was killed in battle in 936. After the death of her husband Duke Giselbert of Lotharingia, Henry's daughter Gerberga of Saxonymarried King Louis IV of France. His youngest daughter, Hedwige of Saxony, married Duke Hugh the Greatof Franceand was the mother of Hugh Capet, the first Capetian king of France.
Henry returned to public attention as a character in
Richard Wagner's opera, "Lohengrin" (1850). There are indications that Heinrich Himmlerimagined himself the reincarnation of the first king of Germany. [Frischauer, Willi. "Himmler, the Evil Genius of the Third Reich". London: Odhams, 1953, pages 85-88; Kersten, Felix. "The Kersten Memoirs: 1940-1945". New York: Macmillan, 1957, page 238.]
Kings of Germany family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.
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Henry the Fowler — … Useful english dictionary
Henry Watson Fowler — (10 de marzo de 1858 – 26 de diciembre de 1933) fue un profesor inglés, lexicógrafo y comentarista del uso del idioma inglés. Fue especialmente conocido por su A Dictionary of Modern English Usage como también por su trabajo en el Concise Oxford… … Wikipedia Español
Henry Weed Fowler — Nacimiento 23 de marzo, 1878 Holmesburg, Pennsylvania Fallecimiento 21 de junio, 1965 Residencia Estados Unidos Nacionalidad … Wikipedia Español
Henry Hammill Fowler — (* 5. September 1908 in Roanoke (Virginia); † 3. Januar 2000) war ein US amerikanischer demokratischer Politiker sowie Finanzminister … Deutsch Wikipedia
Henry H. Fowler — Henry Hammill Fowler Henry Hammill Fowler (* 5. September 1908 in Roanoke, Virginia; † 3. Januar 2000 in Alexandria, Virginia) war ein US amerikanischer demokratischer Politiker und Finanzminister der Vereinigten Staaten unter Präsident … Deutsch Wikipedia
Henry W. Fowler — may refer to:*Henry Watson Fowler (1858 1933), English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of English *Henry Weed Fowler (1878 – 1965), American zoologistee also*Henry Fowler (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Henry Weed Fowler — (March 23, 1878 – June 21, 1965) was an American zoologist born in Holmesburg, Pennsylvania.He studied at Stanford University under David Starr Jordan. He joined the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and worked as an assistant from 1903 … Wikipedia
Henry Weed Fowler — (* 23. März 1878 in Holmesburg, Pennsylvania; † 21. Juni 1965) war ein US amerikanischer Zoologe. Er studierte an der Stanford University unter David Starr Jordan. Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts trat er der Akademie der Naturwissenschaften in… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Henry Watson Fowler — Infobox Person name = Henry Watson Fowler image size = caption = birth name = birth date = birth date|1858|03|10|df=y birth place = Tonbridge, Kent, England death date = death date and age|1933|12|26|1858|03|10|df=y death place = Chard, Somerset … Wikipedia
Henry H. Fowler — Infobox US Cabinet official name=Henry Fowler order=58th title=United States Secretary of the Treasury term start=April 1, 1965 term end=December 20, 1968 predecessor=C. Douglas Dillon successor=Joseph W. Barr birth date=September 5, 1908 birth… … Wikipedia