Austromarxism was a Marxist theoretical current, led by Victor Adler, Otto Bauer, Karl Renner and Max Adler, members of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria during the late decades of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the First Austrian Republic (1918-1934). It is known for its theory of nationality and nationalism, and its attempt to conciliate it with socialism in the imperial context. Hence, Otto Bauer thought of the "personal principle" as a way of gathering the geographically divided members of the same nation. In "Social Democracy and the Nationalities Question" (1907), he wrote that "The personal principle wants to organize nations not in territorial bodies but in simple association of persons.", thus radically disjoining the nation from the territory and making of the nation a non-territorial association.


The Austromarxist group congregated from 1904 around magazines such as the "Blätter zur Theorie und Politik des wissenschaftlichen Sozialismus" and the "Marx-Studien". Far from being a homogeneous movement, it was a home for such different thinkers and politicians as the Neokantian Max Adler and the orthodox Marxist Rudolf Hilferding.

In 1921 the Austromarxists formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (also known as 2½ International or the Vienna International), hoping to unite the 2nd and 3rd Internationals, something which eventually failed.

Austromarxism had inspired later movement like the Eurocommunism and the New Left, to find a "third way", between communism and social democracy and find a way to unite the two movements.

Austromarxism was also in a practical way before its time in in radical reforming. Advanced social economic reforms, healthcare, housebuilding, and educational system in Vienna, lately inspired Labour Party in Great Britain and Scandinavian social democratic parties.

Austromarxism was also the first movement in Europe to see adherents mount an armed resistance to fascist government, which ended in failure in 1934.

The Austromarxist principle of autonomy has been later adopted by various parties, among them the Bund (General Jewish Labour Union), left-wing Zionists (Hashomer Hatzair) in favour of a binational solution in Palestine, the Jewish Folkspartei between the two world wars, and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (DAHR) after 1989.


* [ Otto Bauer-Between Reform and Revolution-Early New Left]
* [ Otto Bauer und Die Mühen des Dritten Wegs Die Linke,Michael R. Krätke]
* Otto Bauer: "Social Democracy and the Nationalities Question" (1908)
* Norbert Leser: "Zwischen Reformismus und Bolschewismus. Der Austromarxismus in Theorie und Praxis" (1968)

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • austromarxism — AUSTROMARXÍSM s.n. Curent oportunist apărut în mişcarea muncitorească din Austria la sfârşitul sec. XIX. [pr.: a us ] – Din germ. Austromarxismus. Trimis de ana zecheru, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  austromarxísm s. n. (sil. a us ) Trimis de… …   Dicționar Român

  • Max Adler (Marxist) — Max Adler (born 15 January 1873 in Vienna; died 28 June 1937 in Vienna) was an Austrian jurist, politician and social philosopher; his theories were of central importance to Austromarxism. He was a brother of Oskar Adler and Friedrich Adler.… …   Wikipedia

  • History of Austria — This article is part of a series Early History …   Wikipedia

  • Late capitalism — is a term used by neo Marxists to refer to capitalism from about 1945 onwards, with the implication that it is a historically limited stage rather than an eternal feature of all future human society. Postwar German sociologists needed a term to… …   Wikipedia

  • Eurocommunism — was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Rudolf Hilferding — (10 August 1877 ndash; February 11, 1941) was an Austrian born Marxist economist, leading socialist theorist,International Institute of Social History, Rodolf Hilferding Papers .] politician and …   Wikipedia

  • Left-right politics — or the Left right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one dimensional political spectrum.The perspective of Left vs. Right is an imprecise, broad, dialectical… …   Wikipedia

  • Social Democratic Party of Austria — Infobox Austrian Political Party party name = Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs party party articletitle = Social Democratic Party of Austria leader = Werner Faymann foundation = December 30, 1888 ideology = Social Democracy and Democratic… …   Wikipedia

  • List of political ideologies — This is a list of political ideologies. Many political parties base their political action and election program on an ideology. In social studies, a political ideology is a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of …   Wikipedia

  • Second International — The Second International (1889 1916) was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. At the Paris meeting delegation from 20 countries participated. [Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.