Haddington, East Lothian


Haddington, East Lothian

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name= Haddington
scots_name= Hadentoun
population = 8,844
os_grid_reference= NT511739
map_type=Scotland
latitude=55.956129
longitude=-2.782455
unitary_scotland= East Lothian
lieutenancy_scotland= East Lothian
constituency_westminster= East Lothian
constituency_scottish_parliament= East Lothian
post_town= HADDINGTON
postcode_district = EH41
postcode_area= EH
dial_code= 01620
static_

static_image_caption=A view of Haddington
london_distance=
edinburgh_distance=

Haddington is a town and former Royal Burgh in East Lothian, Scotland. It is the main administrative, cultural and geographical centre for East Lothian. It lies approximately convert|20|mi|km|0 east of Edinburgh. It was the first Royal Burgh, created sometime in the reign of David I (1124-1153), and at the time contained an Abbey and monastery.

Today Haddington is a small town with a population of less than 9,000, although at one time it was the fourth largest city in Scotland, after Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh. At the centre of the town is the Town House, originally built in 1748 according to a plan by William Adam. When first built, it consisted of a council chamber, jail and sheriff court, to which assembly rooms were added in 1788, and a new clock in 1835. Nearby is the Corn Exchange (1854) and the County Courthouse (1833). Other notable sites include the Jane Welsh Carlyle House, and Mitchell's Close.

Economy

Haddington is located predominantly on the north-east bank of the River Tyne, and was once famous for its mills. It developed into the fourth largest town in Scotland during the High Middle Ages, and latterly was at the centre of the mid-18th century Scottish Agricultural Revolution.

In 1641 an Act was passed by the Parliament of Scotland to encourage the production of fine cloth, and in 1645 an amendment went through stating that the masters and workers of manufactories would be exempt from military service. As a result of this, more factories were established; these included the New Mills. This factory suffered during the Civil War with the loss of its cloth to General Monk. A new charter was drawn up in May 1681, and major capital invested in new machinery, but the New Mills had mixed fortunes, inevitably affected by the lack of protectionism for Scottish manufactured cloth. The Scots Courant reported in 1712 that New Mills was to be 'rouped' (auctioned). The property was sold on 16 February 1713 and the machinery and plant on March 20. The lands of New Mills were purchased by Colonel Francis Charteris and he changed their name to Amisfield.

Landmarks

Amisfield House was described in "The Buildings of Scotland" as "the most important building of the orthodox Palladian school in Scotland." John Henderson built the walled garden in 1783, and the castellated stable block in 1785. The park in front of the house, possibly landscaped by James Bowie, is today entirely ploughed. The house was demolished in 1928.

All that remains of Amisfield today are the summer house, walled garden, ice house, chapel, and gates.

Lennoxlove House, an historic 13th century house and estate, lies half a mile south of Haddington. Built by the Giffards of Yester, it was originally named Lethington. It was once home to the Maitland family, notably Sir Richard Maitland, and his son William Maitlin, Secretary of State to Mary Queen of Scots'. The Maitlands left Lennoxlove in the 17th century, and it is now the seat of the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon.

The world's earliest surviving records of a lodge of free gardeners come from Haddington, in 1676 [Article [http://www.historyshelf.org/shelf/free/02.php Origins of Gardener Societies] at historyshelf.org. (accessed 18 March 2007)] .

t Mary's Collegiate Church

The Parish Church of St Mary's is today part of the Church of Scotland, but includes an Episcopalian chapel, the "Lauderdale Aisle", containing the mausoleum of the Earls of Lauderdale. It is the longest parish church in Scotland and is in regular use for worship and musical events. It is directly adjacent to the river Tyne, beside the 12th century Nungate bridge.

The present building (built with red sandstone from nearby Garvald) was started in 1375 (an earlier St Mary's Church having been destroyed by the English in 1356), and consecrated in 1410, despite building work not being finished until 1487. The church was partially destroyed during the 1548-49 Siege of Haddington that followed the Rough Wooing of Henry VIII, and on the advice of John Knox, it was restored “frae the tower to the West door”. Thus the nave became the church and the choir and transepts were left ruined until the whole church was restored in the 1970s. The Lammermuir pipe organ was built in 1990.

A set of eight bells hung for full change ringing was installed for the Millennium.

port

Haddington is home to the junior football club Haddington Athletic.

Haddington is also home to Haddington RFC, currently playing in Scotland Premiership Division two. Their home pitch is Neilson park.

Twin town

* Aubigny-sur-Nère, France

Notable people

* Ada de Warenne, Countess of Northumbria and Huntingdon (1120-1178), Mother of Malcolm IV and William the Lion, Kings of Scots. Founded the Nunnery for which the Nungate is named.
* Alexander II - (1198 – 1249), King of Scotland from 1214 until 1249.
* John Brown, known as "John Brown of Haddington" - (1722 – 1787), theologian and author of "The Self-interpreting Bible" (known as 'Brown's Bible') and "A Dictionary of the Holy Bible". Became minister in Haddington in 1751 and is buried in the churchyard of St Mary's.
* Samuel Morison Brown - (1817-1856), chemist and writer, grandson of John Brown, born in Haddington.
* Finlay Calder (1957- ) - Scottish rugby player born in Haddington.
* Jane Welsh Carlyle - (1801-1866), wife of the writer Thomas Carlyle, daughter of a local doctor. She was buried next to her father in the choir of St Mary's Church, at that time still ruined.
* William George Gillies (1898-1973) - painter born in the High Street. Student and later principal of the Edinburgh College of Art, several of his works are in the Talbot Rice Gallery in the University of Edinburgh.
* John Gray (1646-1717) - preacher, scholar and book collector, was born and died in Haddington. He assembled an important library of early printed books which was sold to the National Library of Scotland in 1961.
* John Knox (1505, 1513 or 1514 – 1572) - great Protestant reformer born (probably in Nungate on the east bank of the River Tyne, opposite St Mary's) and educated in the town.
* James Lauder (d.1696), M.A., Sheriff-Clerk, Provost, Commissioner to Parliament, and Commissioner to the Convention of Burghs, and M.P., for Haddington. On 7 March 1678 a Supplication (application) was made to the Privy Council by James Lauder, Sheriff-Clerk of Haddington, and two colleagues, to establish a stage-coach service between Haddington and Edinburgh, with two coaches, for seven years. In August 1690 he was said to be responsible for the celebrated escape from his house by two prisoners, of the Seton family, because as a Baillie he was required to attend Church.
* John Mair (also known as "Haddingtonus Scotus") (1467-1550) - Scottish philosopher, friend of Erasmus and teacher of Calvin, Ignatius Loyola, John Knox, and other Scottish Reformers including the Protestant martyr Patrick Hamilton and the humanist and Latin stylist George Buchanan. He held many University and government positions.
* Adam Skirving (1719-1803) - song writer, author of the famous Jacobite song "Hey, Johnnie Cope, Are Ye Waking Yet?", was born in Haddington, farmed at Garleton, and was buried at Athelstaneford.
* Samuel Smiles (1812-1904) - social reformer and author of "Self Help" (1859), lived in the High Street.
* Willie Wood MBE (1938- ) - bowls player who took part in a record seven Commonwealth Games and won two gold medals was born in Haddington and grew up in nearby Gifford.

References

Notes

Bibliography

* "The Records of a Scottish Cloth Manufactory at New Mills, Haddingtonshire" edited by W.R.Scott, M.A., Scottish History Society, Edinburgh, 1905.
* "The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland", Third Series, edited by P.Hume Brown, M.A.,LL.D., volume V, Edinburgh, 1912, p.381.
* "Lost Houses of Scotland", by M.Binney, J.Harris, & E.Winnington, for 'Save Britain's Heritage', London, July 1980. ISBN 0-905978-05-6
* "Haddington: Royal Burgh - A History and a Guide", The Haddington History Society, published 1997 by Tuckwell Press Ltd., ISBN 1-86232-000-4

External links

* [http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/towns/townhistory278.html Town history]
* [http://www.haddingtoncc.org.uk/ Haddington Community Council]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • East Lothian —   [ iːst ləʊȓjən], Verwaltungsgebiet in Schottland, 678 km2, 89 600 Einwohner; Verwaltungssitz ist Haddington.   …   Universal-Lexikon

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  • East Lothian — /loh dhee euhn/ a historic county in SE Scotland. Formerly, Haddington. * * * ▪ council area, Scotland, United Kingdom       council area and historic county, southeastern Scotland. It lies on the southern coast of the Firth of Forth east of… …   Universalium

  • east lothian — ˈlōthēən, thyən adjective Usage: usually capitalized E&L Etymology: from East Lothian, county in Scotland : of or from the former county of East Lothian, Scotland : of the kind or style prevalent in East Lothian * * * /loh dhee euhn/ a historic… …   Useful english dictionary

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