Ribosomal RNA


Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The function of the rRNA is to provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity.

Inside the ribosome

The ribosome is composed of two subunits, named for how rapidly they sediment when subject to centrifugation. tRNA is sandwiched between the small and large subunits and the ribosome catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the 2 amino acids that are contained in the tRNA.

The ribosome also has 3 binding sites called A, P, and E.
* The A site in the ribosome binds to an aminoacyl-tRNA (a tRNA bound to an amino acid).
* The NH2 group of the aminoacyl-tRNA which contains the new amino acid, attacks the carboxyl group of peptidyl-tRNA (contained within the P site) which contains the last amino acid of the growing chain called peptidyl transferase reaction.
* The tRNA that was holding on the last amino acid is moved to the E site, and what used to be the aminoacyl-tRNA is now the peptidyl-tRNA.

A single mRNA can be translated simultaneously by multiple ribosomes.

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic can be broken down into two subunits (the S in 16S represents Svedberg units):

Note that the S units of the subunits cannot simply be added because they represent measures of sedimentation rate rather than of mass. The sedimentation rate of each subunit is affected by its shape, as well as by its mass.

Prokaryotes

In prokaryotes a small 30S ribosomal subunit contains the 16S rRNA.

The large 50S ribosomal subunit contains two rRNA species (the 5S and 23S rRNAs).

Bacterial 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes are typically organized as a co-transcribed operon.

There may be one or more copies of the operon dispersed in the genome (for example, "Escherichia coli" has seven).

Archaea contains either a single rDNA operon or multiple copies of the operon.

The 3' end of the 16S rRNA (in a ribosome) binds to a sequence on the 5' end of mRNA called the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.

Eukaryotes

In contrast, eukaryotes generally have many copies of the rRNA genes organized in tandem repeats; in humans approximately 300–400 rDNA repeats are present in five clusters (on chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22).

The 18S rRNA in most eukaryotes is in the small ribosomal subunit, and the large subunit contains three rRNA species (the 5S, 5.8S and 28S rRNAs).

Mammalian cells have 2 mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA molecules and 4 types of cytoplasmic rRNA (28S, 5.8S, 5S (large ribosome subunit) and 18S (small subunit). 28S, 5.8S, and 18S rRNAs are encoded by a single transcription unit (45S) separated by 2 Internally transcribed spacer (ITS). The 45S rDNA organized into 5 clusters (each has 30-40 repeats) on chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22. These are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. 5S occurs in tandem arrays (~200-300 true 5S genes and many dispersed pseudogenes), the largest one on the chromosome 1q41-42. 5S rRNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III.

The tertiary structure of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) has been resolved by X-ray crystallography cite journal | author = Yusupov MM, Yusupova GZ, Baucom A, "et al" | title = Crystal structure of the ribosome at 5.5 A resolution | journal = Science | volume = 292 | issue = 5518 | pages = 883–96 | year = 2001 | pmid = 11283358 | doi = 10.1126/science.1060089 ] . The secondary structure of SSU rRNA contains 4 distinct domains — the 5', central, 3' major and 3' minor domains. A model of the secondary structure for the 5' domain (500-800 nucleotides) is shown.

Translation

Translation is the net effect of proteins being synthesized by ribosomes, from a copy (mRNA) of the DNA template in the nucleus. One of the components of the ribosome (16s rRNA) base pairs complementary to a sequence upstream of the start codon in mRNA.

Importance of rRNA

Ribosomal RNA characteristics are important in medicine and in evolution.

* rRNA is the target of several clinically relevant antibiotics: chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kasugamycin, micrococcin, paromomycin, ricin, sarcin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and thiostrepton.

* rRNA is the most conserved (least variable) gene in all cells.cite journal |author=Smit S, Widmann J, Knight R |title=Evolutionary rates vary among rRNA structural elements |journal=Nucleic Acids Res |volume=35 |issue=10 |pages=3339–3354 |year=2007 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1904297 |doi=10.1093/nar/gkm101 |pmid=17468501] For this reason, genes that encode the rRNA (rDNA) are sequenced to identify an organism's taxonomic group, calculate related groups, and estimate rates of species divergence. For this reason many thousands of rRNA sequences are known and stored in specialized databases such as RDP-II [cite journal | last = Cole | first = JR | coauthors = Chai B, Marsh TL, Farris RJ, Wang Q, Kulam SA, Chandra S, McGarrell DM, Schmidt TM, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM | year = 2003 | title = The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): previewing a new autoaligner that allows regular updates and the new prokaryotic taxonomy | journal = Nucleic Acids Res | volume = 31 | pages = 442–443 | pmid = 12520046 | doi = 10.1093/nar/gkg039] and the European SSU database. [cite journal | last = Wuyts | first = J | coauthors = Van de Peer Y, Winkelmans T, De Wachter R | year = 2002 | title = The European database on small subunit ribosomal RNA | journal = Nucleic Acids Res | volume = 30 | pages = 183–185 | pmid = 11752288 | doi = 10.1093/nar/30.1.183]

Genes

* RPL1, RPL2, RPL3, RPL4, RPL5, RPL6, RPL7, RPL8, RPL9, RPL10, RPL11, RPL12, RPL13, RPL14, RPL15, RPL16, RPL17, RPL18, RPL19, RPL20, RPL21, RPL22, RPL23, RPL24, RPL25, RPL26, RPL27, RPL28, RPL29, RPL30, RPL31, RPL32, RPL33, RPL34, RPL35, RPL36, RPL37, RPL38, RPL39, RPL40, RPL41
* MRPL1, MRPL2, MRPL3, MRPL4, MRPL5, MRPL6, MRPL7, MRPL8, MRPL9, MRPL10, MRPL11, MRPL12, MRPL13, MRPL14, MRPL15, MRPL16, MRPL17, MRPL18, MRPL19, MRPL20, MRPL21, MRPL22, MRPL23, MRPL24, MRPL25, MRPL26, MRPL27, MRPL28, MRPL29, MRPL30, MRPL31, MRPL32, MRPL33, MRPL34, MRPL35, MRPL36, MRPL37, MRPL38, MRPL39, MRPL40, MRPL41, MRPL42
* RPS1, RPS2, RPS3, RPS4, RPS5, RPS6, RPS7, RPS8, RPS9, RPS10, RPS11, RPS12, RPS13, RPS14, RPS15, RPS16, RPS17, RPS18, RPS19, RPS20, RPS21, RPS22, RPS23, RPS24, RPS25, RPS26, RPS27, RPS28, RPS29
* MRPS1, MRPS2, MRPS3, MRPS4, MRPS5, MRPS6, MRPS7, MRPS8, MRPS9, MRPS10, MRPS11, MRPS12, MRPS13, MRPS14, MRPS15, MRPS16, MRPS17, MRPS18, MRPS19, MRPS20, MRPS21, MRPS22, MRPS23, MRPS24, MRPS25, MRPS26, MRPS27, MRPS28, MRPS29, MRPS30, MRPS31, MRPS32, MRPS33, MRPS34, MRPS35

ee also

*Ribotyping

References

External links

* [http://www.his.se/upload/21749/Ribosomal%20RNA.pdf "Ribosomal RNA"] by Denis LJ Lafontaine and David Tollervey
* [http://www.arb-silva.de SILVA rRNA Database Project] (also includes Eukaryotes (18S) and LSU (23S/28S))
* [http://www.psb.ugent.be/rRNA/ European database on small subunit ribosomal RNA]
* [http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/ Ribosomal Database Project II]
* [http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/16S_ribosomal_RNA 16S rRNA, BioMineWiki]
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Look at other dictionaries:

  • ribosomal RNA — n. a form of RNA that is one of the constituent elements of ribosomes and is associated with messenger RNA and transfer RNA in the synthesis of proteins …   English World dictionary

  • ribosomal RNA — ribosomal RNA. См. рРНК. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

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  • ribosomal RNA — noun : RNA that is a fundamental structural element of the ribosome * * * Biochem. a type of RNA, distinguished by its length and abundance, functioning in protein synthesis as a component of ribosomes. Abbr.: rRNA [1960 65; RIBOSOME + AL1] * * * …   Useful english dictionary

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  • ribosomal RNA — noun Date: 1961 RNA that is a fundamental structural element of ribosomes called also rRNA …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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