- Water gas shift reaction
The water gas shift reaction (WGS) is a
chemical reactionin which carbon monoxidereacts with waterto form carbon dioxideand hydrogen::CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
The water gas shift reaction is a part of
steam reformingof hydrocarbonscite web | url = http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/production/natural_gas.html | title = HFCIT Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming | format = HTML| publisher = United States Department of Energy| date=2006-11-08 | accessdate = 2008-01-07] . It was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontanain 1780. The reaction is slightly exothermic.
The carbon monoxide can also be generated by bogs or other waste regenerative means by physical/chemical processes such as bog and landfill fires.
This reaction has been used as a CO removal method from the reformate for fuel cell applications.
The reverse water gas shift reaction has recently found a possible application in
In-Situ Resource Utilizationon Mars to provide oxygen for fuel for the Mars Directmission concept.
The water gas shift reaction is sensitive to temperature, with the tendency to shift towards reactants as temperature increases due to Le Chatelier's principle. In fuel-rich hydrocarbon combustion processes, the water gas reaction at equilibrium state is often employed as a means to provide estimates for molar concentrations of burnt gas constituents.
The process is used in two stages, stage one a high temperature shift (HTS) at 350 ºC (662 ºF) and stage two a low temperature shift (LTS) at 190-210 ºC (374-410 ºF) [ [http://www.getenergysmart.org/Files/HydrogenEducation/6HydrogenProductionSteamMethaneReforming.pdf Stages] ] .
Attempts to lower the reaction temperature of this reaction have been done primarily with a
catalystsuch as Fe3O4 ( magnetite), or other transition metals and transition metal oxides. Another catalyst is the Raney copper catalyst [http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/handle/10204/776] .
In-Situ Resource Utilization
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