Article XV squadrons


Article XV squadrons

Article XV squadrons were Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand air force flying squadrons formed from graduates of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) during World War II.

History

Under Article XV of the "Riverdale Agreement" which established the BCATP, graduates from Dominion air forces were to be assigned to squadrons either formed by their own air forces, or with a specific national designation, under the operational control of the Royal Air Force (RAF).cite web |url=http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/raaf/eats.htm |title=Empire Air Training Scheme, 2007 |accessdate= 2007-12-23 |format= |work=Australian War Memorial Encyclopedia] If it was intended that they would be under RAF control, Dominion air force squadrons were usually given numbers in the 400–490 range — 400–449 was allotted to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), 450–467 to the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and 485–490 to the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF). [ [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/hist/rcafsqns_e.asp Squadron information from Government of Canada] Access date: 13 October 2007.] cite conference |first=Chris |last=Clark |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Empire Air Training Scheme | conference =Australian War Memorial 2003 History Conference - Air War Europe |booktitle=Conference website |pages= |publisher=Australian War Memorial |date=2003 |location=Canberra |url=http://www.awm.gov.au/events/conference/2003/clark.asp |accessdate=2007-12-22 ] These were known as "Article XV squadrons."

During the war 44 Canadian, 17 Australian and six New Zealand Article XV Squadrons were formed. In practice — and technically in contravention of Article XV — most personnel from Dominion air forces, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units. This was generally due to practical staffing considerations. Similarly, many of the Article XV squadrons contained few airmen from their nominal air force, when they were first formed. However, by the end of the war this had generally been rectified. [cite web |url=http://www.awm.gov.au/units/event_210.asp |title=Article XV Squadrons |accessdate=2007-12-22 |format= |work=Australian War Memorial website ]

In addition, several other pre-war RAAF units — which were not covered by Article XV — were also under RAF operational control. Initially, there was no cross-posting of personnel from the RAF or other Dominion air forces, to or from these squadrons, although this requirement was relaxed later in the war.

The remaining Dominion, South Africa was not a signatory to the BCATP and the South African Air Force (SAAF) did not form any Article XV squadrons. However, South Africa made similar arrangements regarding training and personnel. SAAF units took part in the East African, North African and Italian Campaigns. As the war progressed, personnel from other Dominion air forces served in SAAF units and vice versa.

Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) was not technically a Dominion and was therefore not a signatory to the BCATP, although aircrews from other Dominions were trained there. In 1940, the small Southern Rhodesia Air Force was formed into No. 237 (Rhodesia) Squadron RAF. Two other RAF squadrons, No. 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron RAF and No. 266 (Rhodesia) Squadron RAF were also formed; both had significant numbers of Rhodesian personnel.

Similarly, No. 75 {New Zealand) Squadron RAF, which was staffed primarily by RNZAF personnel during the war and was officially transferred to the RNZAF in late 1945, was officially an RAF squadron during the war.

List of Article XV squadrons

Royal Canadian Air Force

* No. 400 Squadron RCAF
* No. 401 Squadron RCAF
* No. 402 Squadron RCAF
* No. 403 Squadron RCAF
* No. 404 Squadron RCAF
* No. 405 Squadron RCAF
* No. 406 Squadron RCAF
* No. 407 Squadron RCAF
* No. 408 Squadron RCAF
* No. 409 Squadron RCAF
* No. 410 Squadron RCAF
* No. 411 Squadron RCAF
* No. 412 Squadron RCAF
* No. 413 Squadron RCAF
* No. 414 Squadron RCAF
* No. 415 Squadron RCAF
* No. 416 Squadron RCAF
* No. 417 Squadron RCAF
* No. 418 Squadron RCAF
* No. 419 Squadron RCAF
* No. 420 Squadron RCAF
* No. 421 Squadron RCAF
* No. 422 Squadron RCAF
* No. 423 Squadron RCAF
* No. 424 Squadron RCAF
* No. 425 Squadron RCAF
* No. 426 Squadron RCAF
* No. 427 Squadron RCAF
* No. 428 Squadron RCAF
* No. 429 Squadron RCAF
* No. 430 Squadron RCAF
* No. 431 Squadron RCAF
* No. 432 Squadron RCAF
* No. 433 Squadron RCAF
* No. 434 Squadron RCAF
* No. 435 Squadron RCAF
* No. 436 Squadron RCAF
* No. 437 Squadron RCAF
* No. 438 Squadron RCAF
* No. 439 Squadron RCAF
* No. 440 Squadron RCAF
* No. 441 Squadron RCAF
* No. 442 Squadron RCAF
* No. 443 Squadron RCAF

Some RCAF Article XV Squadrons were re-numbered when posted overseas – for example No. 111 (Fighter) Squadron was reformed as No. 440 Squadron when posted from Alaska to Europe – but most RCAF 400-numbered squadrons were formed overseas.

Postwar, the 400 numbering remained in use and the original home-based squadron numbers were replaced with numbers in the 400-series. With expansion of the RCAF in the early 1950s the numbers 444 to 449 were used, and following the 1968 unification of the three service branches, an army helicopter squadron was re-numbered 450, intruding into the RAAF numbers.

Royal Australian Air Force

Australia formed 17 Article XV squadrons, out of a total of 79 RAAF squadrons, during World War II. While 18 squadrons had been originally planned for service with the RAF, No. 465 Squadron was never formed. [cite web |url=http://www.defence.gov.au/RAAF/raafmuseum/research/units.htm |title=RAAF Units |accessdate=2007-12-22 |format= |work=Royal Australian Air Force Museum website] The squadrons were:
* No. 450 Squadron RAAF
* No. 451 Squadron RAAF
* No. 452 Squadron RAAF
* No. 453 Squadron RAAF
* No. 454 Squadron RAAF
* No. 455 Squadron RAAF
* No. 456 Squadron RAAF
* No. 457 Squadron RAAF
* No. 458 Squadron RAAF
* No. 459 Squadron RAAF
* No. 460 Squadron RAAF
* No. 461 Squadron RAAF
* No. 462 Squadron RAAF
* No. 463 Squadron RAAF
* No. 464 Squadron RAAF
* No. 466 Squadron RAAF
* No. 467 Squadron RAAF

Five other RAAF squadrons were also under RAF operational control for the whole or part of the war: multicol ;Coastal Command
*No. 10 Squadron RAAF;Far East Air Force
*No. 1 Squadron RAAF
*No. 8 Squadron RAAF
*No. 21 Squadron RAAF;Desert Air Force
*No. 3 Squadron RAAF

The remaining 57 RAAF squadrons served under the operational control of the RAAF or United States Army Air Forces, in the South West Pacific Theatre during World War II.

Royal New Zealand Air Force

*No. 485 Squadron RNZAF (fighter)
*No. 486 Squadron RNZAF (fighter bomber)
*No. 487 Squadron RNZAF (fighter bomber)
*No. 488 Squadron RNZAF (fighter/night Fighter)
*No. 489 Squadron RNZAF (torpedo bomber)
*No. 490 Squadron RNZAF (flying boat)

In addition No. 75 Squadron (heavy bombers) was treated similarly, forming in August 1939 from 30 Wellington bombers and their crews loaned by New Zealand to the RAF.

References

ee also

*List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons
*List of Royal Australian Air Force aircraft squadrons
*List of Royal Canadian Air Force aircraft squadrons
*List of Royal New Zealand Air Force aircraft squadrons


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