New Brunswick, New Jersey


New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Brunswick
—  City  —
City of New Brunswick
Nickname(s): Hub City
The Healthcare City
Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County. Inset: Location of Middlesex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of New Brunswick, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°29′18″N 74°26′52″W / 40.48833°N 74.44778°W / 40.48833; -74.44778Coordinates: 40°29′18″N 74°26′52″W / 40.48833°N 74.44778°W / 40.48833; -74.44778
Country United States
State New Jersey
County Middlesex
Established December 30, 1730
Incorporated September 1, 1784
Government
 – Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
 – Mayor James M. Cahill
 – Administrator Thomas A. Loughlin 3rd[1]
Area
 – Total 5.8 sq mi (14.9 km2)
 – Land 5.2 sq mi (13.5 km2)
 – Water 0.5 sq mi (1.3 km2)
Elevation[2] 69 ft (21 m)
Population (2010 Census)[3]
 – Total 55,181
 – Density 9,514/sq mi (3,703.4/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 – Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 08901-08903
Area code(s) 732/848
FIPS code 34-51210[4][5]
GNIS feature ID 0878725[6]
Website www.cityofnewbrunswick.org

New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, USA. It is the county seat and the home of Rutgers University. The city is located on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. At the 2010 United States Census, the population of New Brunswick was 55,181.[3] The city is known as "the Healthcare City",[7][8] due to the concentration of medical facilities in Central Jersey, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The corporate offices or production facilities of several large pharmaceutical companies (e.g., Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb) are also within the city limits.

New Brunswick was formed by Royal Charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex County and Somerset County and was reformed by Royal Charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784.[9]

New Brunswick is noted for its rich ethnic heritage. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city. Today, much of that Hungarian community continues to thrive as well as a growing Hispanic community that has developed around French Street past Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.

Contents

History

Origins of the name

Originally inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans, the first white settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was first called Prigmore's Swamp (1681–97), then Inian's Ferry (1691–1714). In 1714, the young village was given the name New Brunswick after the city of Braunschweig, in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League, later in the Holy Roman Empire, and was an administrative seat for the Duchy (and later Principality) of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Elector of Hanover, of the House of Hanover (also known as the House of Brunswick), became King George I of Great Britain (1660–1727).

During the Colonial and Early American periods

Early nineteenth century drawing of Old Queen's

Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776-1777 during the Revolutionary War.

The Declaration of Independence received one of its first public readings in New Brunswick in the days following its promulgation by the Continental Congress.[10][11]

The Trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers University), founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting this city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, and several freshmen at a tavern called "The Sign of the Red Lion" on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets (now the grounds of the Johnson & Johnson corporate headquarters). Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, and at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808. It remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School (now Rutgers Preparatory School) was established also in 1766, and shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building (now known as Alexander Johnston Hall) across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1956, the Trustees of Rutgers divested it of the Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County.

The New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College (Queens would close from 1810 to 1825 due to financial problems, and reopen in 1825 under the name Rutgers College). The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to a seven acre (28,000 m2) tract of land less than one-half mile (800 m) west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.

Hungarian community

The Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick commemorating the anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.

New Brunswick began attracting a Hungarian immigrant population around the turn of the 20th century. Hungarians were primarily attracted to the city by employment at Johnson & Johnson factories located in the city. Hungarians settled mainly in what today is the second ward.

The immigrant population grew until the end of the early century immigration boom. During the Cold War, the community was revitalized by the decision to house refugees from the failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution at Camp Kilmer, in nearby Edison. Even though the Hungarian population has been largely supplanted by newer immigrants, there continues to be a Hungarian Festival in the city held on Somerset Street on the first Saturday of June each year. Many Hungarian institutions set up by the community remain and active in the neighborhood, including: Magyar Reformed Church, Ascension Lutheran Church (Elso Magyar Evangélikus Egyhaz) St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian American Athletic Club, Aprokfalva Montessori Preschool (Aprokfalva Mindennapos Magyar Óvoda),Széchenyi Hungarian Community School & Kindergarten (Széchenyi Magyar Iskola és Óvoda), Teleki Pál Scout Home, Hungarian American Foundation, Vers Hangja, Hungarian Poetry Group, Bolyai Lecture Series on Arts and Sciences (Bolyai Kör),Hungarian Alumni Association (Magyar Öregdiák Szövetség - Bessenyei György Kör), Hungarian Radio Program, Hungarian Civic Association, Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick, Csűrdöngölő Folk Dance Ensemble.

Several landmarks in the city also testify to its Hungarian heritage. There is a street and a recreation park named after Lajos Kossuth, the famous leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The corner of Somerset Street and Plum Street is named Mindszenty Square where the first ever statue of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty was erected. A stone memorial to the victims of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution also stands nearby.

Hispanic community

Since the 1960s, many of the new residents of New Brunswick have come from Latin America. Many citizens moved from Puerto Rico in the 1970s. In the 1980s, many immigrated from the Dominican Republic, and still later from Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador and Mexico. There are many Latino businesses on and around French Street (N.J. Rt. 27).

Demolition, revitalization and redevelopment

Gateway Project under construction

New Brunswick contains a number of examples of urban renewal in the United States. In the 1960s-1970s, the downtown area became blighted as middle class residents moved to newer suburbs surrounding the city, an example of the phenomenon known as "white flight". Beginning in 1975, Rutgers University, Johnson & Johnson, and the local government collaborated through the New Jersey Economic Development Authority to form the New Brunswick Development Company (DevCo), with the goal of revitalizing the city center and redeveloping neighborhoods considered to be blighted and dangerous (via demolition of existing buildings and construction of new ones)[12] Johnson & Johnson decided to remain in New Brunswick and built a new World Headquarters building in the area between Albany Street, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Route 18, and George Street, requiring many old buildings and historic roads to be removed. The Hiram Market area, a historic district which by the 1970s had become a mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican-American neighborhood, was demolished to build a Hyatt hotel and conference center, and upscale housing.[13] Johnson & Johnson guaranteed Hyatt Hotels' investment as they were wary of building an upscale hotel in a run-down area.

The redevelopment process has been controversial. Devco, the hospitals, and the city government continue to draw ire from both historic preservationists, those opposing gentrification,[14] and those concerned with eminent domain abuses, and tax abatements for developers.[15]

The Gateway tower, a 16 story redevelopment project next to the train station, is expected to be completed in 2011.

Geography

New Brunswick is located at 40°29′18″N 74°26′52″W / 40.488304°N 74.447751°W / 40.488304; -74.447751 (40.488304, -74.447751).[16] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.8 square miles (15 km2), including 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) covered by water. New Brunswick is in Raritan Valley (a line of cities in central New Jersey). New Brunswick is on the south side of Raritan Valley along with Piscataway, Highland Park and South Plainfield. New Brunswick is approximately 40 minutes southwest of New York City and 45 minutes northeast of Philadelphia.

New Brunswick is bordered by Piscataway, Highland Park, and Edison across the Raritan River to the north, and also by North Brunswick to the southwest, East Brunswick to the southeast, and Franklin Township in Somerset County.

Climate

New Brunswick has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) typical to New Jersey, characterised by hot, humid summers and cold winters with moderate to considerable rainfall throughout the year.[citation needed]

Climate data for New Brunswick
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 38
(3)
41
(5)
50
(10)
61
(16)
72
(22)
80
(27)
85
(29)
84
(29)
77
(25)
65
(18)
54
(12)
43
(6)
63
Average low °F (°C) 21
(−6)
23
(−5)
31
(−1)
40
(4)
50
(10)
59
(15)
64
(18)
63
(17)
55
(13)
43
(6)
35
(2)
27
(−3)
43
Precipitation inches (mm) 4.10
(104.1)
2.98
(75.7)
4.11
(104.4)
4.08
(103.6)
4.57
(116.1)
3.86
(98)
4.97
(126.2)
4.46
(113.3)
4.38
(111.3)
3.39
(86.1)
3.95
(100.3)
3.93
(99.8)
48.78
(1,239)
Source: [17]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 10,019
1860 11,256 12.3%
1870 15,058 33.8%
1880 17,166 14.0%
1890 18,603 8.4%
1900 20,005 7.5%
1910 23,388 16.9%
1920 32,779 40.2%
1930 34,555 5.4%
1940 33,180 −4.0%
1950 38,811 17.0%
1960 40,139 3.4%
1970 41,885 4.3%
1980 41,442 −1.1%
1990 41,711 0.6%
2000 48,573 16.5%
2010 55,181 13.6%
historical data sources:[18][19][20][3]

At the 2010 census[4], there were 55,181 people, 13,057 households and 7,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,293.5 per square mile (3,585.9/km2). There were 13,893 housing units at an average density of 2,658.1 per square mile (1,025.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 48.79% White, 23.03% African American, 0.46% Native American, 5.32% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 18.08% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39.01% of the population.

There were 13,057 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.69.

20.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 11.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The presence of the university inflates the proportion of the 18-24 population.

The median household income was $36,080 and the median family income was $38,222. Males had a median income of $25,657 versus $23,604 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,308.

Nearly 30% of New Brunswick's population identifies as Latino. Many of the Latino-oriented population come from Puerto Rico, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador.

Government

Local government

The City of New Brunswick is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government.[21]

As the legislative body of New Brunswick's municipal government, the City Council is responsible for approving the annual budget, ordinances and resolutions, contracts, and appointments to boards and commissions. The City Council has five members elected at large to staggered four-year terms. The Council President, elected to a 2-year term by the Council, presides over all meetings.

As of 2011, James Cahill is the 62nd Mayor of New Brunswick; He was sworn in as Mayor on January 1, 1991.[22] Members of the City Council are Council President Robert Recine, Council Vice President Rebecca Escobar, Jimmie L. Cook, Jr., Kevin Egan and Elizabeth Sheehan Garlatti.[23]

Police department

The New Brunswick police department has received attention for various incidents over the years. In 1991, Sergeant Zane Grey fatally shot Shaun Potts, an unarmed black resident - this lead to multiple local protests.[24] In 1996, Officer James Consalvo fatally shot Carolyn "Sissy" Adams, an unarmed prostitute who had bit him.[25] The Adams case sparked calls for reform in the New Brunswick police department, and ultimately was settled with the family.[26] In 2011, Officer Brad Berdel fatally shot Barry Deloatch, a black man who had run from police (although he may have struck officers with a stick);[27] this sparked daily protests from residents.[28]

Following the Deloatch shooting, sergeant Richard Rowe was formally charged with mishandling 81 Internal Affairs investigations; Mayor Cahill explained that this would help "rebuild the public’s trust and confidence in local law enforcement."[29]

Federal, state and county representation

New Brunswick is in the 6th Congressional district and is part of New Jersey's 17th state legislative district.[30] The legislative district was kept unchanged by the New Jersey Apportionment Commission based on the results of the 2010 Census.[3]

New Jersey's Sixth Congressional District is represented by Frank Pallone (D, Long Branch). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).

17th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature, which is represented in the New Jersey Senate by Bob Smith (D, Piscataway) and in the New Jersey General Assembly by Upendra J. Chivukula (D, Somerset) and Joseph V. Egan (D, New Brunswick).[31] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham).[32] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[33]

Middlesex County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members are elected at-large to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year. As of 2010 , Middlesex County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Christopher D. Rafano (South River), Freeholder Deputy Director Ronald G. Rios (Carteret), Carol Barrett Ballante (Monmouth Junction), Stephen J. "Pete" Dalina (Fords), H. James Polos (Highland Park), Mildred Scott (Piscataway) and Blanquita B. Valenti (New Brunswick). Constitutional officers are County Clerk Elaine M. Flynn (Old Bridge Township), Sheriff Mildred S. Scott (Piscataway) and Surrogate Kevin J. Hoagland (New Brunswick).[34]

Education

Public schools

The New Brunswick Public Schools serve students in kindergarten to twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott Districts statewide.[35] New Brunswick's Board of Education members are appointed by the city's mayor.

Schools in the district (with 2005-06 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[36]) include elementary schools — Lincoln and Lincoln Annex (681 students), Livingston (458), McKinley (704), A. Chester Redshaw (719), Paul Robeson Community Theme School for the Arts and Paul Robeson Annex (533), Roosevelt (990), Lord Stirling (720) and Woodrow Wilson (482) — New Brunswick Middle School, as well as New Brunswick High School (1,432), New Brunswick Alternative School (25) and New Brunswick Health Sciences Technology High School for grades 9-12.

The community is also served by the Greater Brunswick Charter School, a K-8 charter school with an enrollment of about 250 children from New Brunswick, Highland Park, Edison and other area communities.[37]

Higher education

Commerce

Urban Enterprise Zone

Most of New Brunswick's retail businesses are within a designated Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).[38]

Health care

City Hall has promoted the nickname "The Health Care City" to reflect the importance of the healthcare industry to its economy.[39] The city is home to the world headquarters of Johnson & Johnson, along with several medical teaching and research institutions including Saint Peter's University Hospital, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and The Bristol-Myers Squibb Children's Hospital.[40]

Transportation

Southbound platform of New Brunswick's NJ Transit train station. University Center at Easton Ave is in the background.

New Brunswick is served by New Jersey Transit and Amtrak trains on the Northeast Corridor Line. New Jersey Transit provides frequent service north to Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, and south to Trenton, while Amtrak's Keystone Service and Northeast Regional trains service the station. The Jersey Avenue station is also served by Northeast Corridor trains. For other Amtrak connections, riders can take New Jersey Transit to Pennsylvania Station, Trenton, Metropark, or Newark Penn Station.

Local bus service is provided by New Jersey Transit. Rutgers University campus busing is provided by Academy Bus.

New Brunswick was at the eastern terminus of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, of which there are remnants surviving or rebuilt along the river.

The New Brunswick NJ Parking Authority (NBPA) manages New Brunswick NJ Parking facilities alongside CitiPark CitiPark who manages a downtown parking facility at 2 Albany Street.

The city encompasses the intersection of U.S. Route 1, and is bisected by Route 27. New Brunswick hosts less than a mile of the New Jersey Turnpike (I-95). Exit 9 of the Turnpike is just outside the city limits in East Brunswick Township.

Other major roads that are nearby include the Garden State Parkway in Woodbridge Township and I-287 in neighboring Edison, Piscataway and Franklin townships.

Culture

Theatre

Three neighboring professional venues, Crossroads Theatre designed by Parsons+Fernandez-Casteleiro Architects from New York. In 1999, the Crossroads Theatre won the prestigious Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theatre. Crossroads is the first African American theater to receive this honor in the 33-year history of this special award category.[41] There is also George Street Playhouse, and the State Theater, comprise the heart of the local theatre scene. The State Theatre is also home to the American Repertory Ballet and the Princeton Ballet School. Rutgers University has a number of student companies that perform everything from cabaret acts to Shakespeare and musical productions.

Looking north from the corner of New and George Streets. The Heldrich Center is on the left

Museums

New Brunswick is the site of the Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University, Albus Cavus, and the Rutgers University Geology Museum.[42]

Art

New Brunswick was an important centre for avant-garde art in the 1950s-70s with several artists such as Allan Kaprow, George Segal, George Brecht, Robert Whitman, Robert Watts, Lucas Samaras, Geoffrey Hendricks and Roy Lichtenstein; some of whom had taught at Rutgers University. This group of artists was sometimes referred to as the 'New Jersey School' or the 'New Brunswick School of Painting'. For more information, see Fluxus at Rutgers University.

Restaurants

New Brunswick has a diverse restaurant market including Nouvelle American, Italian, Middle Eastern, Mexican, Peruvian, Indian, Ethiopian, Thai and Chinese cuisine. Restaurants such as The Frog & the Peach, Delta's, Panico's, The Old Bay, Clydz, Makeda's, Stage Left and Old Man Rafferty's, serve the downtown area.

Grease trucks

The "Grease Trucks" at Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.

The "Grease Trucks" are a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue campus of Rutgers University. They are known for serving "Fat Sandwiches", a sub roll containing several ingredients such as steak, chicken fingers, French fries, falafel, cheeseburgers, mozzarella sticks, gyro meat, bacon, eggs and / or marinara sauce.[43]

Music

New Brunswick's bar scene has been the home to many original rock bands, including some which went on to national prominence such as The Smithereens and Bon Jovi, as well as a center for local punk rock and underground music. Many alternative rock bands got radio airplay thanks to Matt Pinfield who was part of the New Brunswick music scene for over 20 years at Rutgers University radio station WRSU. The local pubs host many local bands, including the Court Tavern[44] since the 1980s, and the Melody Bar during the 1980s and 1990s.

Popular culture

Points of interest

The Heldrich in Downtown New Brunswick

Churches (incomplete list)

Notable residents

Notable current and former residents of the City of New Brunswick include:

Sister cities

New Brunswick has four sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[79]

Gallery

New Brunswick
Looking east from the corner of Hamilton Street and College Ave 
Corner of George and Paterson Streets, looking east 
Corner of Somerset Street and Easton Avenue, looking southeast. Buildings on the left have since been demolished. 

References

  1. ^ Administration, city of New Brunswick. Accessed June 29, 2011.
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of New Brunswick, Geographic Names Information System, accessed April 15, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d 2011 Apportionment Redistricting: Municipalities sorted alphabetically, New Jersey Department of State, p. 7. Accessed June 29, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 14, 2008.
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ 7:30 a.m. -- Filling cracks in the HealthCare City, from the Home News Tribune, September 23, 1999. "With two major hospitals and a medical school, New Brunswick proclaims itself The Healthcare City."
  8. ^ A wet day in the Hub City, Home News Tribune, September 23, 1999. "A few days short of 60 years, on Wednesday, Sept. 16, a dreary, drizzly day just ahead of the deluge of Hurricane Floyd, the Home News Tribune sent 24 reporters, 9 photographers and one artist into the Hub City, as it is known, to take a peek into life in New Brunswick as it is in 1999."
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  10. ^ Declaration of Independence: First Public Readings
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  12. ^ Devco spends $1.6 billion since 1970s, The Daily Targum, January 25, 2006.
  13. ^ Raids by Housing Inspectors Anger Jersey Neighborhood , The New York Times, March 12, 1988.
  14. ^ Students protest DevCo redevelopment, The Daily Targum, September 15, 1999.
  15. ^ Tenants' place is uncertain, The Daily Targum, November 9, 1999.
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  28. ^ Friends, relatives of slain New Brunswick man protest, claiming wrongful death | NJ.com
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