Travunia (Serbian: Травунија or Травуња, Transliterations: "Travunija", "Travunja"; Latin: "Terbounia") was a medieval Serbian realm centered at Trebinje in today's eastern Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia (now part of Croatia).


: "From the city of Decatera begins the domain of Terbounia and stretches along as far as Ragusa, and on the side of its mountain country it is neighbour to Serbia.": "Travunia (Terbounia) and Konavli are united. Its inhabitants originate from unchristened Serbs, who lived there since the archont that fled from unchristened Serbia to Emperor Heraclius and Serb archont Vlastimir: "The archonts of Travunia have always been subject to the archont of Serbia": "Populated cities in Travunia and Konavli are: Travunia (ηε Τερβουνια), Vrm (το Ορμος), Risan (τα Ρισενα), Lukavete (το Λουκαβεται), Zetlivi (του Ζετλεβε)"."

Travunia bordered Zahumlje to the west, the city of Ragusa or Dubrovnik to the southwest, Duklja to the south and Serbia to the north. Its coastline spanned from Dubrovnik to Boka Kotorska.


Travunia entered into confederations with the Serb princes of Rascia early on and was always a fief of Serbian rulers. In the early 9th century, Grand Prince Vlastimir of Rascia gave the hand of his daughter to Prince Krajina, son of Beloje (Bela), the first known župan of Travunia. Krajina's son Hvalimir succeeded Khis as Prince Travunia, whose own son Tišimir Belić succeeded him and ruled as a Serbian vassal under Prince Ceslav. His son Hvalimir succeeded him in 976.

The dawn of the 10th century brought a short lived Bulgarian occupation after the fall of the Rascian lands, but prince Ceslav restored a Principality of Serbia by 931 and ruled Travunia as well. After the defeat of Caslav in 960, Travunia again reclaimed its semi-independence and after its princes (sons of Prince Hvalimir and his brother Predimir and his sons) led long, aggressive wars against the Ban of Doclea, Travunia and Doclea was united under one Serbian crown in the mid 10th century, but Doclea soon came forth in domination of the personal union; first under Prince Predimir and then his son Petrislav ruled the greater part of the Trebinje area. "King" Predimir split his realm and his son Boleslav ruled the area of Trebinje. By 968, Croatian King Krešimir exiled his son, Prince Leghec to Boleslav in Trebinje, where he fell in love in Lovizza, a court maid that gave him seven sons. Leghec raised a rebellion of the people and created a vassalage of the Croatian Kingdom, but the Croatian occupation was expelled and dynastic control reestablished with the help of Ragusa subsequently with Boleslav's son Sylvester; whose ruled justly. From then on, authority passed from father to son on Silvester son Tugomir, and then Tugomir's son Hvalimir II, who gave the territory of Zachlumia and Travunia to one of his sons, Dragomir. Travunia flourished under the greatest Serbian early medieval ruler - Saint Jovan Vladimir of Duklja and Travunia in the late 10th and early 11th century. With the trickery of Jovan Vladimir in 1016, Byzantine domination was restored under old Prince Dragomir. Dragomir was assassinated in Kotor in 1018 which brought upon Byzantine military occupation.

A local Serb nobleman, Stefan Voislav, raised a rebellion in the 1030s and reconstituated the Serbian state. Prince of Zachlumia Ljutovid exerted his influence over Travunia, even though Stefan Voislav claimed it. After inflicting a sound defeat to the Byzantines at Bar, VOislav dispatched 50 captured Greeks to demoralize Liudevit's army that was awaiting at Klobuk. Voislav's son Goislav led the Doclean forces and easily defeated Liutovid's forces, killing Liutovid himself with the help of two bodyguards. Travunia was fully incorporated into Doclea. When Gojslav became the ruler, he elected Trebinje as the new Serbian capital. He was assassinated by Travunian Prince Ljutovid who raised a rebellion in 1047-1050 and Mihailo Voislav had to depose Domanec, Liutovid's son, and move the capital from Travunia, implacing his brother Saganek as Prince of Travunia. Saganek was overthrown in 1055, and it took Radoslav, Mihailo's faithful brother to finally kill Domanec and seize control over Travunia. In 1077 a Slavic Kingdomof Doclea and Dalmatia was proclaimed. With the coming of the 12th century, Travunia was fully incorporated into the unified Serbian state. Later, the House of Nemanjic took over since 1166/68. In 1217, the Serbian Kingdom was proclaimed.

The Area of Trebinje, has produced the House of Mrnjavčević and was at times ruled by members of the Serbian royal family, like Queen Hellen of Anjou in the 13th century. Travunia got a neighbour by 1326, as the Bosnians conquered Zachlumia. In 1345, the Serbian Empire was created. After the collapse of the Serbian Empire in 1371, the area of Trebinje became ruled by the House of Vojinović Serbian dynasty from Hum. With Nikola Altomanović's defeat, the Serbian-Bosnian King Tvrtko took the area in 1377 and it has been a component of Herzegovina ever since.

People, Religion and Culture

Travunia was inhabited by Eastern Orthodox Serbs.

List of Rulers

* Beloje (Belo)
* Krajina ca. 850
* Hvalimir
* Tišimir Belić
* Cucimir
* Petar (Predimir), "Prince of Doclea and Travunia" ca. 900
* Petrislav, "Prince of Doclea and Travunia" 971 - 990
* St. Jovan Vladimir, "Prince of Doclea and Travunia" ca. 990 - 22 may, 1016
* "Prince" Dragomir (1016-1018)
* Stephen Dobroslav I Voislav, "Prince of Duklja" 1034 - ca. 1050
* "Grand Prince", "King" Mihailo of Voislav "of Duklja" ca. 1050 - 1081
* "King" Constantin Bodin "of Duklja and Dalmatia" 1081 - 1101
* Brothers "Kings" Dobroslav II and Mihailo "of Duklja" 1101 - 1102
* "King" Dobroslav III "of Duklja" 1102
* "King" Kočopar "of Duklja" 1102 - 1103
* "King" Vladimir "of Duklja" 1103 - 1114
* "King" George "of Duklja" 1114 - 1118
* "Prince" Grubeša "of Duklja and Antivari" 1118 - 1125
* "King" George "of Duklja" 1125 - 1131 (reinstated)
* "King" Gradihna 1131-1148
* "Prince" Radoslav 1146-1148/1162
* "Prince" Desa 1148-1162

See also

* History of Serbia
* Zahumlje
* Viduzia
* Serbian Empire
* History of Croatia
* History of Dalmatia

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