- Folk high school
Folk High Schools
Folk high schools (Danish: "Folkehøjskole;" Finnish: "kansanopisto" and "työväenopisto" or "kansalaisopisto;" German: "Volkshochschule" and "Heimvolkshochschule;" Norwegian: "Folkehøgskole;" Swedish: "Folkhögskola") are institutions for adult education that do not grant academic degrees. They are most commonly found in
Nordic countriesand in Germany. The concept originally came from the Danish writer, poet, philosopher and pastor Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig(1783–1872). Grundtvig was inspired by the Marquis de Condorcet's "Report on the General Organization of Public Instruction" which was written in 1792 during the French Revolution. The Revolution had a direct influence on popular education in France.
Despite similar names and somewhat similar goals, the institutions are quite different in Germany and Sweden as opposed to the traditions in Norway. Folk high schools in Germany and Sweden are in fact much closer to the institutions known as "folkeuniversitet" or "folkuniversitet" in Norway and Denmark which provide
adult education. However, unlike the "folkuniversitet," folk high schools in Sweden are not connected to a regular university. The Finnish "työväenopisto" or "kansalaisopisto" (called "arbetarinstitut" in Swedish) are also part of the educational Folk tradition.
Other countries have been inspired by Grundtvig's concept of popular education. In
Africa, the United Statesand India, a few schools have been built upon Grundtvig's principles for education.
The character of folk high schools differ from country to country, but usually institutions have the following common features:
* Large variety of subjects
* No final exams
* A focus on self-development
* Pedagogical freedom
* Courses last between a few months and one year
Especially in non-German speaking countries, folk high schools may be
boarding schools or may mainly offer courses for adults age 18–30.
The first folk high school was founded in
Rødding, Denmarkin 1844. It began on the initiative of Kristen Kold, who was a follower of Grundtvig. The school was inspired by the need to educate those not fortunate enough to have an education and the poor, or peasantry, who could not spare the time or the money to attend a university. Among the other old folk high schools in Denmark are Askov Højskolein Jutlandand Vallekilde Højskolein Zealand, both founded in 1865.
As of 2008, there are currently 79 folk high schools in Denmark. The principal subjects of instruction vary from the creative arts such as music, arts, design, writing, to intellectual courses such as religion, philosophy, literature and psychology. Some schools even have courses that specialize in sports.
In recent history,
globalizationhas exercised an increasingly important influence on Danish schools. Many courses are open to foreigners as well as Danes, and many courses include travelling or voluntary stays in other countries as part of the curriculum.
Norway's first folk high school was founded in 1864. As of 2007, there were 77 folk high schools spread across the country, thirty of which were Christianschools. Folk high schools provide opportunities in general education, primarily for young adults. These schools are different from secondary schools, high schools, and higher education. All students are eligible for normal financial aid. Most folk high schools are connected to some sort of organization. Most courses are for one year, but there are a few that are two years.
The first folk high schools in
Swedenwere established in 1868. As of 2008, there are about 150 folk high schools throughout the country, most of which are situated in the countryside, often in remote areas. Tuitionis free, and the students are eligible for normal financial aid for expenses such as accommodations and othe school costs. After graduating, the students are eligible to study at a university.
Some schools, for example
Södra Vätterbygdens Folkhögskolanear Jönköping, cooperate with schools in other countries and have an exchange student program.
Folk high schools in the German-speaking countries usually provide non-credit courses for adults in:
* general education
* vocational education
* political education
* German as a second language (especially for immigrants)
* various foreign languages
* various forms of art
* information technology
* health education
* preparatory classes for school exams (especially for the
This type of folk high school is currently most widespread in Germany. Because they offer preparatory classes for school exams, the German folk high schools also function as the equivalent of
adult high schools in other countries. Germany also has folk high schools that are boarding schools, called "Heimvolkshochschulen".
In 1866, during the Second Empire,
Jean Macéfounded the " Ligue de l'enseignement" ("Teaching League"),which was devoted to popular instruction. Following the split between the Anarchists and the Marxists at the 1872 Hague Congress, popular education remained an important part of the workers' movement, especially in the anarcho-syndicalist movement which set up, with Fernand Pelloutier, various "Bourses du travail" centres, where workers gathered and discussed politics and sciences. The Jules Ferry lawsthat were passed in the 1880s established free, secular, mandatory public education as one of the founding principles of the Third Republic. In addition, many teachers were strong supporters of Alfred Dreyfusduring the Dreyfus Affairof the 1890s. Afterward, some teachers set up free educational lectures on humanist topics in order to struggle against the spread of anti-semitismin France.
In more recent times, following the 1981 presidential election Minister of Education
Alain Savarysupported Jean Lévi's initiative to create a public high school that would deliver the baccalauréatbut would be organized on the principles of " autogestion" (or "self-management"). This high school took the name " Lycée autogéré de Paris" (LAP) [ [http://lyc-autogere.scola.ac-paris.fr/ Official website of the LAP] ] . The LAP was explicitly inspired by the secondary school Vitruve, which opened in 1962 in the 20th arrondissementof Paris (and is still active), Oslo Experimental High School, which opened in 1967 in Norway, and Saint-NazaireExperimental High School, which opened six months before the LAP. Theoretical influences include the works of Célestin Freinet, Raymond Fonvieille, Fernand Oury, and other theoreticians of the institutional pedagogy, institutional analysis( René Lourauin particular), and institutional psychotherapeuticmovements.
* [http://www.bartleby.com/65/fo/folkhigh.html "folk high school", Columbia Encyclopedia article]
* [http://www.vhs.at/ Information about Folk High Schools in Austria]
* [http://www.danishfolkhighschools.com/ Information about Folk High Schools in Denmark]
* [http://www.vhs.de/ Information about Folk High Schools in Germany]
* [http://www.folkhogskolor.fi/ Information about Folk High Schools in Finland]
* [http://www.u-p.asso.fr/ Information about Folk High Schools in France, called "Université populaire du Rhin"]
* [http://www.folkehogskole.no/ Information about Folk High Schools in Norway]
* [http://www.volkshochschule.it/ Information about Folk High Schools in South Tyrol]
* [http://www.folkhogskola.nu/ Information about Folk High Schools in Sweden]
* [http://www.vhs.ch/ Information about Folk High Schools in Switzerland]
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