IGH@


IGH@

Immunoglobulin heavy locus, also known as IGH@, is a region on human chromosome 14 that contains gene for the heavy chains of human antibodies (or immunoglobulins).cite web | title = Entrez Gene: IGH@ immunoglobulin heavy locus| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3492| accessdate = ]

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summary_text = Immunoglobulins recognize foreign antigens and initiate immune responses such as phagocytosis and the complement system. Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. This region represents the germline organization of the heavy chain locus. The locus includes V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant) segments. During B cell development, a recombination event at the DNA level joins a single D segment with a J segment; this partially rearranged D-J gene is then joined to a V segment. The rearranged V-D-J is then transcribed with the IGHM constant region; this transcript encodes a mu heavy chain. Later in development B cells generate V-D-J-Cmu-Cdelta pre-messenger RNA, which is alternatively spliced to encode either a mu or a delta heavy chain. Mature B cells in the lymph nodes undergo switch recombination, so that the V-D-J gene is brought in proximity to one of the IGHG, IGHA, or IGHE genes and each cell expresses either the gamma, alpha, or epsilon heavy chain. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, and by somatic hypermutation, which occurs during B cell maturation in the spleen and lymph nodes. Several V, D, J, and C segments are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: IGH@ immunoglobulin heavy locus| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3492| accessdate = ]

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Tomlinson IM, Cook GP, Walter G, "et al." |title=A complete map of the human immunoglobulin VH locus. |journal=Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. |volume=764 |issue= |pages= 43–6 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7486559 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Word CJ, White MB, Kuziel WA, "et al." |title=The human immunoglobulin C mu-C delta locus: complete nucleotide sequence and structural analysis. |journal=Int. Immunol. |volume=1 |issue= 3 |pages= 296–309 |year= 1991 |pmid= 2518659 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Buluwela L, Rabbitts TH |title=A VH gene is located within 95 Kb of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes. |journal=Eur. J. Immunol. |volume=18 |issue= 11 |pages= 1843–5 |year= 1989 |pmid= 3144456 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ichihara Y, Matsuoka H, Kurosawa Y |title=Organization of human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity gene loci. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=7 |issue= 13 |pages= 4141–50 |year= 1989 |pmid= 3243276 |doi=
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*cite journal | author=Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH |title=Arrangement of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes implies evolutionary duplication of a segment containing gamma, epsilon and alpha genes. |journal=Nature |volume=300 |issue= 5894 |pages= 709–13 |year= 1983 |pmid= 6817141 |doi=
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*cite journal | author=Dudley DD, Manis JP, Zarrin AA, "et al." |title=Internal IgH class switch region deletions are position-independent and enhanced by AID expression. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 15 |pages= 9984–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12114543 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.152333499
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*cite journal | author=Hallermann C, Kaune KM, Gesk S, "et al." |title=Molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal breakpoints in the IGH, MYC, BCL6, and MALT1 gene loci in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. |journal=J. Invest. Dermatol. |volume=123 |issue= 1 |pages= 213–9 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15191563 |doi= 10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.22720.x
*cite journal | author=Sepulveda MA, Garrett FE, Price-Whelan A, Birshtein BK |title=Comparative analysis of human and mouse 3' Igh regulatory regions identifies distinctive structural features. |journal=Mol. Immunol. |volume=42 |issue= 5 |pages= 605–15 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15607820 |doi= 10.1016/j.molimm.2004.09.006
*cite journal | author=Streubel B, Vinatzer U, Lamprecht A, "et al." |title=T(3;14)(p14.1;q32) involving IGH and FOXP1 is a novel recurrent chromosomal aberration in MALT lymphoma. |journal=Leukemia |volume=19 |issue= 4 |pages= 652–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15703784 |doi= 10.1038/sj.leu.2403644
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