- Svinøy fyrstasjon
Infobox Lighthouse|name= Svinøy fyrstasjon
location = Herøy, NOR
coordinates = coord|62.328394|5.2717941|display=inline|type:landmark
yearbuilt = 1905
yearlit = 1905
automated = 2005
foundation = Granite
construction = Concrete
shape = Octagonal
height = 10.8
elevation = 46.2m
currentlens = lantern
range = 18.5 nm
characteristic = Fl (2) 30s
admiralty = L0650
NGA = 5600
ARLHS = NOR-042
Svinøy fyr is a fully automated
lighthousesituated on the island of Svinøy in the sea off Stad in the municipality of Herøy, on the western coast of Norway. The island lies within sight of the mainland and 6 km from the nearest other island. It is 300 meters east to west and 900 meters north to south. The island rises 35 meters out of the sea and is exposed to severe climatic conditions year 'round. [Harvnb|Ryvarden|Lauritzen|2006|pp=II:180-181]
Travel accounts from the 18th century tell that local farmers would put pigs out to pasture on the island during the summer, hence the name "Svinøy" ("swine island"); this oral tradition was confirmed by a historian in 1931, but it seems likely that goats were put on the island in the summer.
A lighthouse commission of 1851 recommended placing a lighthouse on Svinøy but found conditions too difficult to implement such plans. As an interim measure, a marker was placed on the island. The plans for a full lighthouse were realized in the following decades, and on September 1, 1905 the lighthouse was finished and lit, with further construction finished the following year.
Quarters for several families were built, but the isolated island was never a popular station. At the peak, three families lived on the island, growing vegetable gardens and employing a tutor for their children.
During World War II, German troops were stationed at the lighthouse, and in 1940 Allied bomb raids put the light out of commission. It was repaired after the war and reopened in 1946.
By 1952, it became apparent that no crew were willing to be permanently stationed on the island. A crew of four was stationed there in a shift arrangement, and the shift arrangements eased in 1970 when helicopters were used to ferry staff and supplies between the island and the mainland. In addition to lighthouse duties, the staff also conducted metereological measurements on an ongoing basis. At one time, goats were brought onto the island to provide a hobby for the inhabitants.
On the 100th anniversary of the original lighting of the firehouse, the island was depopulated as the light was fully automated. Although many of the original buildings have been torn down, the station still includes several buildings and can now sleep 10 in comfortable but modest circumstances [Harvnb|Kystverket jubileumsskrift|2005] .
Since 2005 the company "62 Nord" has offered overnight arrangements for small groups.
Flora, fauna, and climatic conditions
Botanic surveys of the island were conducted in 1928 and 2005. The plant diversity had increased in the intervening years, possibly due to weeds being imported when inhabitants planted vegetable gardens. Wind and salt spray limit the natural vegetation to lichen (
Xanthoria parietinaand Ramalina cuspidata) and grasses ( Armeria maritamaand more).
Close to the renowned bird island of
Runde, Svinøy also attracts a rich diversity of birds, including puffins.
The island is an automated weather station under
Kystverket. The climate on the island is typically coastal, with precipitation 780 mm a year, somewhat less than what is typical on Norway's western coast. Precipitation measurements are complicated by high winds and sea spray.
The island ties for the Norwegian record for sustained winds, at 46 m/s (~103 mph); with gusts considerably higher. Waves are known to wash over the entire island.
So difficult are landing conditions that the island has no piers. There are three landing sites on different sides of the island, and on one, a crane pulls boats out of the water. A boathouse built in 1905 lasted only one year before it was claimed by the sea and rebuilt in a concrete well above the surface the year after. [Harvnb|Kystverket jubileumsskrift|2005]
* [http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/ The Lighthouse Directory]
last = Ryvarden
first = Leif
author-link = http://www.bio.uio.no/meb/db03-staff/Leif.html
last2 = Lauritzen
first2 = Per Roger
author2-link = http://www.gyldendal.no/new/default.asp?ID_Person=1019512
title = KystNorge
volume = 1-3
place = Oslo
publisher = Gyldendal
isbn = 9788205352650
* [http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/norw2.htm Lighthouse Directory entry]
* [http://www.62nord.net/default.asp?menu=1129 62 Nord description of the lighthouse]
* [http://www.kystverket.no/?did=9220896 Article on closure of the lighthouse by Kystverket]
* [http://www.kystverket.no/Default.aspx?did=9277478 100th Anniversary publication by Kystverket]
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