Curia regis


Curia regis

Curia regis is a Latin term meaning "royal council" or "king's court."

England

The Curia Regis, in the Kingdom of England, was a council of tenants-in-chief (those who held lands directly from the King, known as manors) and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. It replaced its Anglo-Saxon predecessor, the Witenagemot, after the Norman conquest of 1066, and eventually developed into the Parliament of England.

William the Conqueror brought to England the feudal system of his native Normandy. Thus, he granted land to his most important military supporters, who in turn granted land to their supporters, thus creating a feudal hierarchy.

William II was an absolute ruler but often sought the advice of the Curia Regis before making laws.

The tenants-in-chief often struggled with their spiritual counterparts and with the King for power. In 1215, from John they secured Magna Carta, which established that the King may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of this council. It was also established that the most important tenants-in-chief (the earls and the barons), as well as the ecclesiastics (archbishops, bishops and abbots) be summoned to the council by personal writs from the Sovereign, and that all others be summoned to the council by general writs from the sheriffs of their counties. John later repealed Magna Carta, but Henry III reinstated it.

The royal council slowly developed into a Parliament. In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, who was in rebellion against Henry III, summoned a parliament of his supporters without any royal authorisation. The archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls and barons were summoned, as were two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough. Knights had been summoned to previous councils, but the representation of the boroughs was unprecedented. De Montfort's scheme was formally adopted by Edward I in the so-called "Model Parliament" of 1295. At first, each estate debated independently; by the reign of Edward III, however, Parliament had been separated into two Houses and was assuming recognisably its modern form.

Assembly seats
Preceded by
Witenagemot
c. 627-1066
Curia Regis
1066-c. 1215
Succeeded by
Parliament of England
c. 1215-1707

France

See also

  • King's Bench

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • CURIA REGIS — Là où est le roi, là est sa cour; cette cour portait au Moyen Âge le nom latin de curia regis . La famille du roi: mère, épouse, oncles, frères, ses familiers et les domestiques de l’«hôtel» en forment le noyau, autour duquel gravitent les grands …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Curia Regis — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Curia Regis est une expression latine signifiant Conseil Royal ou Cour du Roi. Ce terme peut désigner : la Curia regis anglaise, ancêtre du Parlement …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Curia Regis — ist ein lateinischer Begriff und bedeutet „Königlicher Rat“ oder „Gerichtshof des Königs“. In England war die Curia Regis eine Versammlung von Kronvasallen und Klerikern, die den König bei gesetzgeberischen Fragen berieten. Sie ersetzte nach der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • curia regis — (Latin: The King s Court.) Dictionary from West s Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. curia regis [Latin, The King s Court.] …   Law dictionary

  • curia regis — | ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ˈrējə̇s noun (plural curiae regis) Usage: usually capitalized C&R Etymology: Medieval Latin, literally, king s curia : a small permanent council in medieval England composed of those members of the great council serving as officers… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Curia regis — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Curia Regis est une expression latine signifiant Conseil Royal ou Cour du Roi. Ce terme peut désigner : la Curia regis anglaise, ancêtre du Parlement …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Curia regis — Lit. the king s court . The successor of the AS *witan, this court saw the meetings of the king s tenants in chief, i.e. the *baronage and the Church. William I, the Conqueror, held this court three times a year, at Christmas, Easter and… …   Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases

  • curia regis — /kyuriya riyjas/ The king s court. A term applied to the aula regis, the bancus, or communis bancus, and the iter or eyre, as being courts of the king, but especially to the aula regis (which title see) …   Black's law dictionary

  • curia regis — /kyuriya riyjas/ The king s court. A term applied to the aula regis, the bancus, or communis bancus, and the iter or eyre, as being courts of the king, but especially to the aula regis (which title see) …   Black's law dictionary

  • Curia Regis — /kyoor ee euh ree jis/, (often l.c.) Eng. Hist. 1. a small, permanent council, composed chiefly of officials in the household of a Norman king, that served in an advisory and administrative capacity. 2. See great council (def. 1). [ < ML: lit.,… …   Universalium


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