Papal conclave, 1922


Papal conclave, 1922

After a reign of just eight years, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 of pneumonia. At his death there were 61 members of the College of Cardinals. However, just one day later, Enrique Cardinal Almaraz y Santos, the Archbishop of Toledo, died, leaving a college of 60 cardinals to elect Pope Benedict's successor.

53 of the 60 cardinals assembled in the Sistine Chapel on 2 February. Cardinals José María Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia, Giuseppe Prisco and Lev Skrbenský z Hříště did not attend for reasons of health, whilst the four non-European cardinals - William Henry O'Connell of Boston, Denis Dougherty of Philadelphia, Louis-Nazaire Bégin of Québec City and Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro - did not arrive in time and missed the conclave. Because all these four except Cavalcanti "did aim to make the journey to Rome", Pius XI was to change the rules so that cardinals from distant locations had a better chance of participating in the conclave by extending the time between the death of a Pope and the election of his successor.

Context

The previous five conclaves had produced a constant tic-tacing between conservatives and liberals, from the conservative Pope Gregory XVI in 1831 to the (initially) liberal Pope Pius IX. By the time of his death in 1878 Pius IX had become a reactionary conservative. He however was succeeded by the liberal Pope Leo XIII, who on his death was succeeded by the populist conservative Pope Pius X. In 1914 the liberal Benedict XV, a protegé of the cardinal vetoed as pope in 1903, Mariano Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro, was elected. The question many asked was: from which side would the new pope come this time?

Conclave - election of the Archbishop of Milan

The 1922 conclave was the most divided conclave in many years. While two of the previous three conclaves had lasted three days or less, the 1922 conclave lasted for five days. It took fourteen ballots for "Achille Cardinal Ratti", the Archbishop of Milan, to reach the two-thirds majority needed for election.

Aftermath

Ratti himself was less easy to categorise in terms of the conservative/liberal divide than most of his immediate predecessors. Most regarded him as a moderate conservative, to the right of Pope Benedict but to the left of Popes Gregory XVI, Pius IX (at the end of his reign) and Pius X. He was also strikingly different from his predecessor. Whereas Benedict was an aristocratic diplomat in poor health, Ratti was an unusual combination of a scholar, librarian, diplomat and talented mounted climber.

In other eras Pius XI would count as a major pope. However he had the misfortune in the twentieth century of competing for historic profile with a number of high profile popes: Pius X, who was canonised; Pope Pius XII, the controversial pope during the Second World War; the acclaimed Pope John XXIII (later declared 'Blessed'), the theologically controversial Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul I, famous simply for the shortness of his reign (33 days) and for controversies over his death; and Pope John Paul II, who, ruling the Church for over a generation, became something of an icon for the Papacy. In that context Pope Pius XI has tended to be overlooked and overshadowed, joining his predecessor Benedict XV as one of the twentieth century's "forgotten popes". Pius XI died in 1939, on the eve of the Second World War.

ee also

*Cardinal electors in Papal conclave, 1922

*Reference:Francis A. Burkle-Young, "Papal Elections in the Age of Transition 1878-1922" published 2000 by Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7391-0114-5


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cardinal electors in Papal conclave, 1922 — The following were the cardinal electors in the 1922 papal conclave. Arranged by region (not by the linguistic groups commonly used in universal church senacles), and within each alphabetically (not the official order of precedence, which is not… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave — Conclave redirects here. For other uses, see Conclave (disambiguation). The Holy See This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Holy See …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 2005 — Papal conclave, April 2005 Dates 18–19 April 2005 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Dean …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1492 — Papal conclave, August 1492 Dates August 6–August 11, 1492 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Papal States …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, October 1978 — Dates October 14–October 16, 1978 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1903 — The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. (Pope John Paul II (1978 2005) passed Leo a century later.) It saw the election of Giuseppe… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1878 — The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. The conclave occurred in circumstances different from those of any previous conclave. Contents 1 Unique circumstances 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1644 — Coat of arms of the Holy See during the sede vacante …   Wikipedia

  • Papal conclave, 1655 — Coat of arms of the Holy See during the sede vacante …   Wikipedia

  • Conclave de 1922 — Début du conclave 2 février 1922 Fin du conclave 6 février 1922 Lieu du vote …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.