- Jahangir Khoja
Jahanghir Khoja [
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, article on Kashgar] , Jāhangīr Khwāja [Kim (2003)] , or Jihangir Khoja ( _zh. 张格尔, Zhangge'er) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Āfāqīkhoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgariafrom the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s.
rebellionhad broken out in May, 1826, Jahangir Khoja managed to flee to Kashgarfrom Kokand(where he had been held in prison in accordance with a secret agreement, concluded between the Khanate of Kokandand Qing dynasty China, concerning descendants of Appak khoja) [ This agreement, according to M. Kutlukov, was concluded first by the Kokand ruler Irdana Biy(1751-1770) as soon as the Qings became aware of Khoja Sarymsak(an Ak Taghlik who was the only person among Appak Khoja's descendants to survive the 1757-1759 Qing invasion of Kashgaria), who, via Kabuland Badakhshan, had arrived in Kokand and had settled there. The agreement was confirmed later by the following Kokand rulers: Narbuta Biy(1770-1798), Alim Khan (1798-1810), Omar Khan(1810-1822), and Muhammad Ali Khan (1822-1842). The rulers of Kokand promised in the agreement to hold all Appak Khoja descendants under observation, restrict their activities, and not let them leave Kokand. In exchange, Kokand received every year a definite amount of silver (quantities varied from 250 up to 1000 ingots (" yamboos") and tea. Kokand traders were also granted trade privileges in Kashgaria. Jahangir Khoja (1788-1828) was a son of Khoja Sarymsak.] , taking the opportunity offered by an earthquake that destroyed most towns in the Ferghana Valley. After appearing in Kashgar with only several hundreds of his followers he then quickly increased his force by volunteers, and within several months he collected under his banner about 200,000 troops [ Among volunteers in Jahangir's Army were a lot of "ghalchas" (mountain Tajiks), whose tight black costume gave rise to the rumours in Siberiaabout presence of Europeans among Jahangir's troops, those rumours were also contributed by Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, that being upset of the opportunity, might have gained by British forces in Indiadue to this rebellion, reported of 13 British Body Guards of Jahangir Khoja, 7 of them followed him wherever he goes all the time. Last fact was not confirmed by the local sources. According Russian sources, Jahangir's uprising was completely quelled by China by the summer of 1828. ] , with which he had overthrown Qing power in Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, and Yangihissar, having Qing garrisons annihilated in these cities. Nevertheless, Qing China managed to mobilize "all forces of Empire, that were put into motion" and by September, 1827, collected in Aksu an army of 70,000, under command of military governor of IliChang Ling, that in January, 1828, moved against Jahangir Khoja. His forces were defeated within one month, he was captured, and delivered to Beijing. There he was exposed to the attention of China's capital's population, being carried for several weeks in a mobile iron cage through the main streets of Beijing. Finally he was brought to the Daoguang Emperorfor interrogation, but, having gone mad due to bad treatment, he couldn't answer any questions. Immediately after the interrogation was completed he was executed. Jahangir Khoja's body was cut into numerous pieces and his bones were thrown to dogs. His portrait was buried in the hill near Beijing. He was forty years old at the time of his death.
Kutlukov, M. "Relations between
Khanate of Kokandand Qing China". Moscow, Nauka, 1982
* Kim Hodong, "Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877". Stanford University Press (March 2004). ISBN 0804748845. (Searchable text available on Amazon.com)
* G. Grum-Grzimajlo, [http://www.cultinfo.ru/fulltext/1/001/007/023/23409.htm Eastern Turkestan] ru icon in
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Jahangir — For people named Jahangir Khan, see Jahangir Khan (disambiguation). For the rebel against Qing rule in Kashgar, see Jahangir Khoja. Jahangir … Wikipedia
Wali Khan (khoja) — Wali Khan was a member of the Ak Taghliq clan of East Turkestan Khojas, who invaded Kashgaria from Kokand on several occasions in the 1850s, and succeeded in ruling Kashgar for a short while.Although Ak Taghliks had been expelled from Kashgaria… … Wikipedia
Dungan revolt (1862–1877) — Dungan revolt Yakub Bek Date 1862 1877 Location … Wikipedia
Islam during the Qing Dynasty — The rise of the Qing Dynasty (1644 1911) made relations between the Muslims and Chinese more difficult. The Qing rulers were Manchu, not Han, and were themselves a minority in China. They employed the tactics of divide and conquer to keep the… … Wikipedia
Аппак Ходжа — Мавзолей Аппака ходжи в Кашгаре Аппак Ходжа, Афак Ходжа, или Абах Ходжа (уйг. Appak hodja), (Afaq … Википедия
Tajiks of Xinjiang — Tajiks Total population 41,028 (China) 1,000 2,000 (Tajikistan, Sarikoli) Regions with significant populations Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County Languages … Wikipedia
Xinjiang — For other uses, see Xinjiang (disambiguation). Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Chinese : 新疆维吾尔自治区 Xīnjiāng Wéiwú ěr Zìzhìqū Uyghur … Wikipedia
Yaqub Beg — Muhammad Yaqub Beg, from the 1898 book by N.Veselovsky Born 1820 Pskent, Khanate of Kokand Died May 30, 1877( … Wikipedia
Queue (hairstyle) — Chinese American man with queue in San Francisco s Chinatown Chinese name … Wikipedia
Mujahideen — For callers to prayer (muʾaḏḏin), see Muezzin. Part of the Politics series on … Wikipedia