The Smiling, Proud Wanderer

The Smiling, Proud Wanderer

"The Smiling, Proud Wanderer" (zh-tsp|t=笑傲江湖|s=笑傲江湖|p=xiào ào jiāng hú) is a 1967 Chinese-language wuxia novel written by Louis Cha, who was better known as Jinyong.

The term "Xiao Ao Jiang Hu" (笑傲江湖) means to live a carefree life in a mundane world of strife. An alternative English name is State of Divinity. The book is known by both translations in English. Fact|date=February 2007 The book has been adapted to films, in the form of "The Swordsman" (starring Sam Hui) and "Swordsman II" (starring Jet Li) (whose Chinese titles both refer to the title of the novel).


The plot revolves around the themes of friendship, love, deception, betrayal, ambition and lust for power. In the middle of it all is the protagonist Linghu Chong, a student of Yue Buqun of the Huashan Sect. The plot takes readers through his journey and development into a formidable swordsman and his witness to the various intrigues which take place in the Jianghu in the story.

The plot’s development is primarily based on with a legendary swordplay manual and how the characters are linked to it. Legend has it that there is a martial arts manuscript Bi Xie Swordplay Manual in the Lin Family, which when mastered will give the person god-like speed and power.Many people lusted after this manuscript, including Zuo Lengchan, the leader of Songshan Sect and leader of the "Five Mountains Sects Alliance", Yue Buqun, and Yu Canghai, leader of Qingcheng Sect.

Unlike most other novels by Louis Cha in which the historical timeframes are explicitly mentioned, the historical setting of the novel is less obvious. The following factors suggest that the events of the novel took place during the Ming Dynasty.

* In The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber (倚天屠龍記), it was mentioned that Zhu Yuanzhang betrayed the Ming Cult (明教) and founded the Ming Dynasty towards the end of the novel. It was highly possible that he persecuted the Ming Cult after he ascended to the throne, forcing the Ming Cult to be renamed to Sun Moon Holy Sect (日月神教), as in "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer". The Ming Cult was formerly better known as the ‘Demonic Cult’ (魔教) to pugilists, and so was the Sun Moon Holy Sect in "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer". A dialogue in "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer" also contained the words ‘Zhu Yuanzhang was also a monk.’

* In The Deer and the Cauldron (鹿鼎記), set during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the head abbot of Shaolin Monastery mentioned to Wei Xiaobao about a hero named Linghu Chong who lived long ago.

* There was a military officer named Wu Tiande in "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer", whose rank was ‘Can Jiang’ (参将). This rank was only used during the Ming and Qing dynasties.

* In The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber (倚天屠龍記), it was mentioned that the Wudang Sect was founded in the early years of the Yuan Dynasty by Zhang Sanfeng. In "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer", the Wudang Sect had become one of the leading sects in the Jianghu and the Tai Chi Swordplay (太極劍法), created by Zhang Sanfeng, was practised by Wudang’s students.

* In the movies The Swordsman and Swordsman II, it was mentioned that it took place during the reign of the Wanli Emperor.

"The Smiling, Proud Wanderer" was intentionally written as a reflection of politicians. In 1980, Jinyong commented that he did not include any historical setting in this novel to show that these colourful people appear in every era. Furthermore, he pictured the novel's characters as politicians rather than the leaders of martial art sects.

Jinyong had also noted that "The Smiling, Proud Wanderer" was written during the time of the Cultural Revolution of China. The characters such as Lin Pingzhi and Fang Zheng were representative of actual politicians who lived during that time.

"The Smiling, Proud Wanderer" also contained elements of The Count of Monte Cristo written by French writer Alexandre Dumas, who was one of Jinyong’s favourite authors. Linghu Chong’s encounters with the recluse swordsman Feng Qingyang and the imprisoned Ren Woxing were similar to Edmond Dantes’s encounter with Father Faria. Yue Buqun’s evil schemes, Lin Pingzhi’s revenge and Yue Lingshan’s marriage were similar to certain parts of Dumas’s novel.

The origins of the Sunflower Manual (葵花寶典) and Bi Xie Swordplay Manual (辟邪劍譜)

The Sunflower Manual (葵花寶典) was said to be written by a eunuch from the imperial palace and was first discovered by two fellow disciple brothers from the Huashan Sect named Yue Su and Cai Zifeng. In an attempt to copy the manual, each of them read half of it and memorized his part before returning to Huashan. When they tried to compile their parts, they found it to be incomprehensible. Each of them believed his memory and interpretation of the manual was better, but neither could come up with something substantial.

Subsequently, Yue Su and Cai Zifeng became rivals and gave rise to the split of the Huashan Sect into the Qi and Sword factions, respectively headed by them. The head abbot of Shaolin recognised the evil nature and inherent dangers of practising the Sunflower Manual’s martial arts. He sent a monk named Du Yuan to act as a mediator between the two factions and dissuade them from practising the Sunflower Manual’s martial arts. The two rivals apologised for their folly and requested Du Yuan’s help in understanding the manual better.

Du Yuan was able to make logical conclusions from Yue Su and Cai Zifeng’s recollections of the manual, and eventually compiled a comprehensible version of the Sunflower Manual, which later fell into the hands of the Sun Moon Holy Sect when they raided Huashan. At the same time, Du Yuan had gradually became extremely obsessed with the manual itself and his mind was totally corrupted by it. He secretly created his own copy of the manual on his cassock and renounced his vows as a monk, returning to a secular life and assuming his former name Lin Yuantu. The manual which he secretly copied became a swordplay manual known as the Bi Xie Swordplay Manual (辟邪劍譜) which bore some similarities to the original Sunflower Manual, such as requiring one to castrate himself before practicing the martial arts within the manual.

Key Characters

=The Huashan Sect (華山派)=

* Linghu Chong (令狐沖) – the protagonist of the novel. He was an orphan who was raised and taught by Yue Buqun, and became the eldest disciple of the latter. He mastered the ‘Nine Swords of Dugu’ (獨孤九劍) after an extraordinary encounter with Feng Qingyang and henceforth became a formidable swordsman.

The Qi Faction (氣宗)

* Yue Buqun (岳不群) – the leader of the sect and its Qi faction. Although he had the nickname "The Gentleman Sword" (君子劍), he gradually revealed his true colours, as actually being a narrow-minded, selfish, and power-hungry hypocrite. He lusted after the Lin Family’s heirloom the ‘Bi Xie Swordplay Manual’ (辟邪劍譜) and managed to get hold of it, eventually castrating himself to master the skill. He became the primary villain towards the end of the novel and was killed unexpectedly by Yi Lin.

* Ning Zhongze (寧中則) – the wife and former younger disciple sister of Yue Buqun. She was nicknamed ‘Heroine Ning’ (寧女俠). She committed suicide towards the end of the novel after being humiliated by members of the Sun Moon Holy Sect and lost her will to live after her husband revealed his beastly form.
* Yue Lingshan (岳靈珊) – the daughter Yue Buqun and Ning Zhongze. She was initially Linghu Chong’s love interest, but later married Lin Pingzhi. She was killed tragically by her husband towards the end of the novel.

* Lin Pingzhi (林平之) – the son of Lin Zhennan of the Fu Wei Escort Agency and a descendant of Lin Yuantu. His entire family was massacred by the Qingcheng Sect, and was accepted by Yue Buqun as a disciple, who sympathised him, but was actually eyeing his family heirloom as well. He married Yue’s daughter Yue Lingshan, but eventually realised that he was a pawn in the power struggle. Driven by strong hatred and resentment, he became increasingly vicious, killing his wife, but was blinded eventually.

* Yue Su (岳肅) – the elder disciple brother of Cai Zifeng, whom he secretly read the Sunflower Manual (葵花寶典) with. He was the founder of the Huashan Sect’s Qi Faction.

* Lao Denuo (勞德諾) – nicknamed ‘Sa Lao Tou’ (薩老頭). He was Yue Buqun’s second disciple, but was actually a spy sent by Zuo Lengchan to steal the ‘Violet Mist Divine Skill’ (紫霞神功) manual. He murdered Lu Dayou..

* Lu Dayou (陸大有) – Yue Buqun’s sixth disciple, nicknamed Sixth Monkey (六猴儿). He had a close relationship with his eldest disciple brother Linghu Chong, and even stole their teacher’s ‘Violet Mist Divine Skill’ (紫霞神功) manual to help Linghu, but was murdered by Lao Denuo, who took the manual from him.

The Sword Faction (劍宗)

* Feng Qingyang (風清揚) – the disciple uncle of Yue Buqun and Ning Zhongze. He was from the Huashan Sect’s Sword Faction, but was disappointed by the internal struggle between the sect’s two factions and left to lead a life of seclusion in the backhill. He met Linghu Chong by chance and taught him the powerful ‘Nine Swords of Dugu’ (獨孤九劍)

* Cai Zifeng (蔡子峰) – the younger disciple brother of Yue Su, whom he secretly read the Sunflower Manual (葵花寶典) with. He was the founder of the Huashan Sect’s Sword Faction.

* Feng Buping (封不平) – one of the leaders of the Sword Faction and elder disciple brother of Cheng Buyou. He returned from exile to challenge Yue Buqun for place of leader of the Huashan Sect, but was defeated by Linghu Chong and forced back into exile.

The Sun Moon Holy Sect (日月神教)

* Ren Yingying (任盈盈) – the daughter of Ren Woxing and main female protagonist of the novel. She was extremely ruthless and intelligent, making her the second most feared person in the sect during Dongfang Bubai’s reign. She was the sect’s Sacred Maiden (聖姑) and was well-loved by the followers as she would plea on their behalf for the temporary antidote from Dongfang. She fell in love with Linghu Chong and they were married.

* Ren Woxing (任我行) – the former leader of the sect whose name literally meant ‘I do as I please’. He instilled fear and panic into the hearts of many, including his own followers. He lost power in a scheme orchestrated by Dongfang Bubai and was imprisoned for 12 years until his escape. Upon his return, several of Dongfang’s followers defected over, thereby allowing him to seize back power. He eventually died after suffering severe giddiness due to old age. His most infamous technique was the ‘Star-Sucking Skill’ (吸星大法) which allowed him to drain the internal energy of his enemies.

* Dongfang Bubai (東方不敗) – the leader of the sect whose name literally meant ‘Invincible East’. He plotted against Ren Woxing and seized power from him, imprisoning the latter for 12 years. He was undeniably the most powerful martial artist in the novel as he had mastered the skills in the ‘Sunflower Manual’ (葵花寶典), but had castrated himself in the process. He was slain eventually by the combined efforts of Ren Woxing, Xiang Wentian and Linghu Chong.

* Xiang Wentian (向問天) – an elder of the sect who remained loyal to Ren Woxing. He was denounced as a traitor and imprisoned after Dongfang Bubai seized power. He became sworn brothers with Linghu Chong, whom he felt a strong affinity with. He became the sect’s leader after the death of Ren Woxing.

* Qu Yang (曲洋) – an elder of the sect who was an expert in playing the zither. He befriended Liu Zhengfeng, who too had a strong love for music and the duo composed the famous musical piece ‘Xiao Ao Jiang Hu’ (笑傲江湖). They were cornered by several pugilists and committed suicide together by bursting their own arteries.

* Lan Fenghuang (藍鳳凰) – the leader of the Five Deities Sect (五仙教) and a subordinate of Ren Yingying. She attempted to cure Linghu Chong of his internal injuries but failed. She became Linghu Chong’s god-sister.

=The Songshan Sect (嵩山派)=

* Zuo Lengchan (左冷禪) – the ambitious leader of the Songshan Sect and leader of the Five Mountain Sects Alliance Zuo Lengchan practised a skill "Freezing Breath" (寒冰真氣) which freezes his internal energy to sub-zero temperature, thus increasing its power tremendously. Zuo Lengchan succeeded in mastering the fake version of the ‘Bi Xie Swordplay’ (辟邪劍法), acquired by his spy Lao Denuo. He was killed by Linghu Chong.

=The (North) Hengshan Sect (恆山派)=

* Yi Lin (儀琳) – a disciple of Ding Yi. She was the daughter of Monk Bu Jie and Mute Grandma. She fell in love with Linghu Chong after he rescued her from the lecherous Tian Boguang, but as she was a nun, she had to keep her feelings for him secret as such feelings were prohibited within the sect. She is arguably the female character in the novel who understood Linghu Chong the most.

* Ding Wen (定閒) – one of the sect’s Three Elder Nuns and leader of the sect. Benevolent and wise, she was the most understanding of the three towards Yi Lin. She was ambushed and killed by Yue Buqun at Shaolin Temple along with Ding Yi, but she named Linghu Chong her successor before her death.

* Ding Jing (定靜) – one of the sect’s Three Elder Nuns and the oldest among them. She was the rightful heir to the place of leader, but she passed it to her junior Ding Wen instead. She was ambushed by Zuo Lengchan’s lackeys, in a bid to force her to join Zuo’s ‘alliance’, but she refused to capitulate and died before Linghu Chong could save her.

* Ding Yi (定逸) – the youngest of the sect’s Three Elder Nuns and the teacher of Yi Lin. Despite having a fiery temper, she maintained a morally upright character. She was murdered in Shaolin Temple by Yue Buqun along with Ding Wen.

=The (South) Hengshan Sect (衡山派)=

* Mo Da (莫大) – the leader of the sect. He was a mysterious person, known for playing misery-filled tunes on his huqin, where he stored his sword. He was a top-notch exponent who employed remarkable swordplay which corresponded with his music, and displayed his sect’s fast, unpredictable swordplay to its fullest.

* Liu Zhengfeng (劉正風) – nicknamed ‘Third Master Liu’ (劉三爺). He was Mo Da’s younger disciple brother and the deputy leader of the sect. He played the flute extremely well and befriended Qu Yang of the Sun Moon Holy Sect, who shared the same fiery passion for music with him, with whom he composed the famous musical piece ‘Xiao Ao Jiang Hu’ (笑傲江湖) together. On his day of retirement from the Jianghu, he was confronted and together with Qu Yang, they committed suicide by bursting their arteries.

=The Taishan Sect (泰山派)=

* Tian Men (天門道人) – the leader of the Taishan Sect. He was killed by conspirators within in his own sect during the coronation ceremony on Songshan hosted by Zuo Lengchan to eliminate his rivals.

=The Shaolin Sect (少林派) =

* Fang Zheng (方證) – the abbot of Shaolin Temple and leader of the Shaolin Sect. The abbot of the Shaolin Monastery and headmaster of the Shaolin Sect. He was highly respected and recognised in the Jianghu as one of the most powerful martial artists. He agreed to pass on the ‘Yi Jin Jing’ to Linghu Chong to cure the latter of his internal wounds as he believed it was Linghu Chong’s karma.

* Fang Sheng (方生) - Fang Zheng’s younger disciple brother and the deputy leader of the Shaolin Sect.

=The Wudang Sect (武當派)=

* Chong Xu (冲虚道長) – the leader of the Wudang Sect and an expert in ‘Tai Chi Swordplay’ (太極劍法). He was defeated in a match by Linghu Chong by chance while in disguise as a farmer.

=The Qingcheng Sect (青城派) =

* Yu Canghai (余滄海) – the leader of the Qingcheng Sect. He massacred the Lin Family in an attempt to obtain their Bi Xie Swordplay Manual (辟邪劍譜), but was slain by Lin Pingzhi for revenge towards the end of the novel. He was known for his "Pine Wind Swordplay" (松風劍法), which allowed him to enshroud his foes in a green shadow.

The Fu Wei Escort Agency (福威鏢局)

* Lin Yuantu (林遠圖) – formerly a member of the Shaolin Sect with the Buddhist name Du Yuan (渡元). He founded the Fu Wei Escort Agency (福威鏢局) which was passed down to his later generations. He was also the creator of the Bi Xie Swordplay (辟邪劍法), which became the most highly sought-after swordplay manual in his descendants’ generations.

* Lin Zhennan (林震南) – the father of Lin Pingzhi and a descendant of Lin Yuantu. He inherited his ancestor’s Bi Xie Swordplay Manual (辟邪劍譜), which was highly sought after by many pugilists. His family had run the Fu Wei Escort Agency (福威鏢局) for three generations until its destruction when it was passed on to him. He was captured along with his wife by Yu Canghai and tortured to death by Mu Gaofeng.

The Golden Sabre Sect of Luoyang (洛陽金刀門)

* Wang Yuanba (王元霸) – nicknamed ‘Invincible Golden Sabre’ (金刀無敵). He was the leader of the sect and maternal grandfather of Lin Pingzhi.

The Four Friends of Jiangnan (江南四友)

* Huang Zhonggong (黃鍾公) – a music fanatic who challenged Linghu Chong to a duel once in a bid to obtain a famous music score. He was forced to commit suicide by Ren Woxing.

* Hei Bai Zi (黑白子) – a chess fanatic who had an extremely pale face and extremely dark hair which earned him his name. He became a handicap after Linghu Chong used the ‘Star Sucking Skill’ (吸星大法) on him.

* Tu Biweng (禿筆翁) – he challenged Linghu Chong to a duel with his judge’s brush once but lost. He was forced to submit and consume a poison pill by Ren Woxing

* Dan Qingsheng (丹青生) – a wine craze who got to knew Linghu Chong through their common interest. He was a swordplay expert and fought with Linghu Chong but lost.

Other characters

* Bu Jie (不戒) – the father of Yi Lin. He fell in love with Yi Lin’s mother who was a nun and renamed himself ‘Bu Jie’ (不戒), which literally meant ‘no rules’. He too attempted to cure Linghu Chong of his internal wounds by further injecting another two streams of energy, but failed and worsened Linghu Chong’s condition.

* Tian Boguang (田伯光) – a bandit nicknamed "Lone Traveller of a Ten Thousand Li" (萬里獨行). He was notorious for being a lecher who had raped many women. He tried to rape Yi Lin but Linghu Chong stopped him. Later, Bu Jie semi-castrated him and forced him to become a monk with the name Bu Ke Bu Jie (不可不戒), which meant ‘cannot have no rules’.

* The Six Immortals of the Peach Valley (桃谷六仙) – six brothers who were each named after the six parts of the peach tree. They usually quarrel and bicker among themselves for the sake of it, but were actually very close to each other. They tried to cure Linghu Chong of his internal wounds but failed and caused further harm to the latter by further injecting six streams of energy into his body.

* Mu Gaofeng (木高峰) – a notorious hunchbacked bandit from the north. He was also among those eyeing the Lin Family’s Bi Xie Swordplay Manual (辟邪劍譜). He tried to force Lin Pingzhi to be his disciple and tortured Lin’s parents to death. His hunchback was in fact a sack containing poison gas, which when torn, would release the gas and blind enemies. He was slain by Lin Pingzhi for revenge, but he had blinded the latter as well.

* Ping Yizhi (平一指) – a physician nicknamed ‘Killer Physician’ (殺人名醫). He believed that life and death was predestined by heaven’s will, so saving a life is equivalent to defying heaven. As such, he laid down a regulation that for every life he saves, another must die. He was unable to cure Linghu Chong of his internal wounds and committed suicide.

The various sects

The Five Mountains Alliance (五嶽劍派)

The Five Mountains Alliance is a loose alliance formed by the self-proclaimed ‘righteous’ sects based on the Five Sacred Mountains of China, namely Songshan (嵩山), Huashan (華山), Taishan (泰山), (north) Hengshan (恆山) and (south) Hengshan (衡山). The alliance is headed by the ambitious and power-hungry Songshan Sect under the leadership of Zuo Lengchan, who had actually called for the alliance to consolidate power and challenge the Shaolin and Wudang sects.

=The Huashan Sect (華山派)=

The Huashan Sect was originally the most powerful of the Five Mountains Alliance. Following a dispute over the Sunflower Manual, the two fellow disciple brothers (Yue Su and Cai Zifeng) brought about the division of the sect into the Qi and Sword factions headed by each of them respectively. The Qi faction focuses mainly on internal energy cultivation, while the Sword faction focuses on swordplay techniques. Tension between the two factions increased till armed conflict finally broke out. The Qi faction managed to gain control of the sect through a ruse and eventually forced the Sword faction into exile and has since remained in control of the sect.

=The Songshan Sect (嵩山派)=

The Songshan Sect was based on the same mountain as the Shaolin Sect, but they were situated on different peaks of the mountain. Its martial arts mainly comprise of swordplay techniques. Headed by Zuo Lengchan, it was the leader of the Five Mountains Alliance, which was in fact a loose alliance called for by Zuo to consolidate his power. It was considerably the most despicable sect in the novel under Zuo Lengchan’s leadership for its unscrupulous acts to dominate the Jianghu.

=The (South) Hengshan Sect (衡山派)=

The (South) Hengshan Sect was one of the members of the Five Mountains Alliance. Its members incorporate music into their martial arts practice, consisting of mainly swordplay techniques designed to suit musical themes. It is headed by Mo Da, who was well-known for playing misery-filled tunes on his huqin, where his sword was concealed. Liu Zhengfeng, one of its members, was part of the duo who composed the musical piece ‘Xiao Ao Jiang Hu’ (笑傲江湖).

=The (North) Hengshan Sect (恆山派)=

Similar to Shaolin and Wudang, its members are mainly Buddhist nuns, although ‘su jia di zi’ (俗家弟子) are also accepted if they are virgins. Their martial arts focus on a set of swordplay techniques, designed specially for women to allow the user to put up a comprehensive defence that can expose the vulnerable parts of an enemy and catch the enemy off guard. However, this form of swordplay only allows the user to disarm an enemy and not kill the enemy, which is in accordance to their Buddhist code of showing mercy. It is headed by the Three Elder Nuns of the ‘Ding’ (定) generation. Ironically, Linghu Chong was made their successor and subsequently some male members joined the sect on Ren Yingying’s orders to make him less embarrassed about leading a sect of nuns and women.

=The Taishan Sect (泰山派)=

The Taishan Sect was part of the Five Mountains Alliance. Its members practice mainly swordplay like the other four sects in the alliance. It is headed by Tian Men.

The Sun Moon Holy Sect (日月神教)

The Sun Moon Holy Sect was based on Black Woods Peak (黑木厓). It was of unknown origin and was possibly renamed from the Ming Cult (明教) as it was better known to pugilists as the ‘Demonic Cult’ (魔教) just like the Ming Cult. It was considered as being unorthodox and evil to the other sects and a common enemy of all the orthodox sects. Its members were notorious for engaging in all forms of cult-like activities and acts of evil. It was formerly headed by Ren Woxing until Dongfang Bubai took over, having removed Ren from power with a scheme. Dongfang Bubai treated his followers cruelly, making them consume poison and giving them the antidote to temporarily ease their suffering only if they obeyed him. Ren Woxing once practiced the infamous ‘Star-Sucking Skill’ (吸星大法) and Dongfang Bubai was also said to be invincible after mastering the skills in the Sunflower Manual (葵花寶典). Xiang Wentian became its leader after the death of Ren Woxing.

=The Qingcheng Sect=

The Qingcheng Sect was headed by Yu Canghai. It was responsible for the destruction of the Fu Wei Escort Agency in their attempt to possess the highly sought-after Bi Xie Sword Manual (辟邪劍譜) owned by the Lin Family. It was later destroyed by Lin Pingzhi for revenge.

=The Shaolin Sect (少林派)=

Founded by Da Mo (達摩), it is hailed as the origin of all Chinese martial arts. It is one of the leading orthodox sects in the Jianghu, alongside the Wudang Sect and the Kunlun Sect. Its members are mostly Buddhist monks, who practise martial arts only for self-defence and upholding justice, although there are also members who are not monks, known as ‘su jia di zi’ (俗家弟子). Although it was based on Songshan, it had no ties with the Songshan Sect as both were based on different peaks of the mountain. It is home to seventy-two different types of the powerful martial arts in the Jianghu, including the ‘Tendon-Altering Sutra’ (易筋經). It is headed by the abbot Fang Zheng and several elder monks of the ‘Fang’ (方) generation.

=The Wudang Sect (武當派) =

Founded by Zhang Sanfeng (張三豐) during the Yuan Dynasty. It is one of the leading orthodox sects in the Jianghu, alongside the Shaolin Sect and the Kunlun Sect. Its members are Taoist priests who, like Shaolin, practise martial arts only for self-defence and upholding justice. Its martial arts are based on the Tai Chi and it houses the ‘Tai Chi Fist’ (太極拳) and ‘Tai Chi Swordplay’ (太極劍法). It is headed by Chong Xu.

The Fu Wei Escort Agency (福威鏢局)

The Fu Wei Escort Agency was founded by Lin Yuantu, who was formerly a monk of the Shaolin Sect. He created the Bi Xie Sword Manual (辟邪劍譜) which became the most highly-sought after martial arts manual in his descendants’ generations. When Lin Zhennan took over the agency, it was destroyed by the Qingcheng Sect who had long been eyeing their family’s heirloom.


TV series


* In 1991, Tsui Hark produced a version of this story in "The Swordsman" (directed by King Hu). Sam Hui starred as Linghu Chong, Cecilia Yip as Yue Lingshan, Sharla Cheung as Ren Yingying, and Jacky Cheung as Ouyang Chi. The plot amalgamizes much of the novel's details and characters. At the 10th HK Film Awards, it won for Best Action Design and Best Song (Cang Hai Yi Sheng Xiao composed by James Wong Jim). It was also nominated in 4 other categories including Jacky Cheung for Best Supporting Actor.

* In 1992, Tsui Hark's Film Workshop Co. Ltd. produced a sequel, "The Swordsman II" starring Jet Li as Linghu Chong, Michelle Reis as Yue Lingshan, Rosamund Kwan as Ren Yingying, and Brigitte Lin as Dongfang Bubai. Although the story again deviated from the original novel quite a bit (a romantic relationship between LHC and DFBB develops), it still became the #1 movie of that year in Hong Kong. Brigitte Lin was nominated for Best Actress at the 12th Hong Kong Film Awards. It had 7 nominations in total but only won for Best Costume Design.

* In 1993, Brigitte Lin's portrayal of Dongfang Bubai was so appealing to audiences that a third movie, "The East is Red" was made. Besides the name of the main character, the film was independent of the novel.


* State of Divinity, by Li Zhiqing

tage Productions

* In 2006, the Hong Kong Dance Company adapted this story into a stage production, starring Rosanne Wong (2R) as Yi Lin, Race Wong (2R) as Yue Lingshan, Liu Yinghong as Linghu Chong, Su Shu as Ren Yingying, Chen Lei as Dongfang Bubai, Mi Tao as Lin Pingzhi, as a jubilee presentation to celebrate the company's 25th Anniversary.

External links

* [ Jin Yong Teahouse] - fansite of Jin Yong's novels in Chinese

*en icon [ Smiling Proud Wanderer] - English translation of the novel at

*en icon [ a clip of a heart aching scene] to see Jamie Chik Mei Chun and Chow Yun Fat in action

*en icon [ State of Divinity (CCTV, 2001)] - fansite of a TV adaptation

*en icon [ Translation of the book]

*zh icon [ Fan Audio Adaptation]

*imdb title|id=0446248|title=The Smiling, Proud Wanderer (1984)

*en icon [ The Smiling, Proud Wanderer] Adaption into a stage production by the Hong Kong Dance Company in 2006

*zh icon [ The Smiling, Proud Wanderer] Adaption into a stage production by the Hong Kong Dance Company in 2006

*en icon [ XAJH Photo Gallery] - A fansite dedicated to the screenshots of the CCTV adaptation of the novel

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  • The Return of the Condor Heroes (2006 TV series) — infobox television show name = The Return of the Condor Heroes caption = Title screenshot format = Wuxia, Drama runtime = 45 mins (per episode) creator = Zhang Jizhong, Jinyong (novel) starring = See Cast below country = China language = Mandarin …   Wikipedia

  • The Deer and the Cauldron — Lu Ding Ji redirects here. For other uses, see Lu Ding Ji (disambiguation). The Deer and the Cauldron   Author(s) Jin Yong …   Wikipedia

  • The Swordsman — Infobox Film name = The Swordsman director = King Hu Ching Siu Tung (uncredited) Ann Hui (uncredited) Andrew Kam (uncredited) Tsui Hark (uncredited) producer = Tsui Hark writer = Jinyong (novel) Kwan Man Leung starring = Sam Hui Cecilia Yip Jacky …   Wikipedia

  • Other Tales of the Flying Fox — For other uses, see Other Tales of the Flying Fox (disambiguation). Other Tales of the Flying Fox/Young Flying Fox   Author(s) Jin Yong …   Wikipedia

  • Laughing in the Wind — (zh tp|t=|p=Xiao Ao Jiang Hu) is a Chinese wuxia television series. Produced by China Central Television (CCTV) in 2000, it was first broadcasted in China in 2001. It is based on the epic novel The Smiling, Proud Wanderer, written by Louis Cha.… …   Wikipedia

  • Jin Yong — The Honourable Dr. Louis Cha 查良鏞博士 GBM, OBE Born February 6, 1924 (1924 02 06) (age 87) Haining, Zhejiang, China …   Wikipedia

  • List of Ode to Gallantry characters — The following is a list of characters from Jin Yong s wuxia novel Ode to Gallantry. Contents 1 Main character 2 Xuansu Manor (玄素莊) 3 Snowy Mountain Sect (雪山派) …   Wikipedia

  • List of Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils characters — The following is a list of characters from Jin Yong s wuxia novel Demi Gods and Semi Devils. There are about over 230 characters in the novel, including those who are only mentioned by name. Contents 1 Protagonists 2 Kingdom of Dali 3 Murong… …   Wikipedia

  • List of A Deadly Secret characters — The following is a list of characters from Jin Yong s wuxia novel A Deadly Secret. Contents 1 Main characters 2 Wan Zhenshan s associates 3 Blood Saber Sect (血刀門) …   Wikipedia

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