Protein phosphatase 1D magnesium-dependent, delta isoform, also known as PPM1D, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PPM1D protein phosphatase 1D magnesium-dependent, delta isoform| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=8493| accessdate = ]

section_title =
summary_text = The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PPM1D protein phosphatase 1D magnesium-dependent, delta isoform| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=8493| accessdate = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD, "et al." |title=Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence. |journal=Nature |volume=377 |issue= 6547 Suppl |pages= 3–174 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7566098 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hirano K, Ito M, Hartshorne DJ |title=Interaction of the ribosomal protein, L5, with protein phosphatase type 1. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=270 |issue= 34 |pages= 19786–90 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7649987 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Fiscella M, Zhang H, Fan S, "et al." |title=Wip1, a novel human protein phosphatase that is induced in response to ionizing radiation in a p53-dependent manner. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=94 |issue= 12 |pages= 6048–53 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9177166 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Takekawa M, Adachi M, Nakahata A, "et al." |title=p53-inducible wip1 phosphatase mediates a negative feedback regulation of p38 MAPK-p53 signaling in response to UV radiation. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=19 |issue= 23 |pages= 6517–26 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11101524 |doi= 10.1093/emboj/19.23.6517
*cite journal | author=Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, "et al." |title=Functional analysis of the human CDC5L complex and identification of its components by mass spectrometry. |journal=EMBO J. |volume=19 |issue= 23 |pages= 6569–81 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11101529 |doi= 10.1093/emboj/19.23.6569
*cite journal | author=Choi J, Nannenga B, Demidov ON, "et al." |title=Mice deficient for the wild-type p53-induced phosphatase gene (Wip1) exhibit defects in reproductive organs, immune function, and cell cycle control. |journal=Mol. Cell. Biol. |volume=22 |issue= 4 |pages= 1094–105 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11809801 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Li J, Yang Y, Peng Y, "et al." |title=Oncogenic properties of PPM1D located within a breast cancer amplification epicenter at 17q23. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=31 |issue= 2 |pages= 133–4 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12021784 |doi= 10.1038/ng888
*cite journal | author=Bulavin DV, Demidov ON, Saito S, "et al." |title=Amplification of PPM1D in human tumors abrogates p53 tumor-suppressor activity. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=31 |issue= 2 |pages= 210–5 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12021785 |doi= 10.1038/ng894
*cite journal | author=Morimoto H, Okamura H, Haneji T |title=Interaction of protein phosphatase 1 delta with nucleolin in human osteoblastic cells. |journal=J. Histochem. Cytochem. |volume=50 |issue= 9 |pages= 1187–93 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12185196 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Imabayashi H, Mori T, Gojo S, "et al." |title=Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes and chondrogenesis of human bone marrow stromal cells via chondrosphere formation with expression profiling by large-scale cDNA analysis. |journal=Exp. Cell Res. |volume=288 |issue= 1 |pages= 35–50 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12878157 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bernards R |title=Wip-ing out cancer. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=36 |issue= 4 |pages= 319–20 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15054481 |doi= 10.1038/ng0404-319
*cite journal | author=Lu X, Bocangel D, Nannenga B, "et al." |title=The p53-induced oncogenic phosphatase PPM1D interacts with uracil DNA glycosylase and suppresses base excision repair. |journal=Mol. Cell |volume=15 |issue= 4 |pages= 621–34 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15327777 |doi= 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.08.007
*cite journal | author=Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, "et al." |title=The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). |journal=Genome Res. |volume=14 |issue= 10B |pages= 2121–7 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15489334 |doi= 10.1101/gr.2596504
*cite journal | author=Yamaguchi H, Minopoli G, Demidov ON, "et al." |title=Substrate specificity of the human protein phosphatase 2Cdelta, Wip1. |journal=Biochemistry |volume=44 |issue= 14 |pages= 5285–94 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15807522 |doi= 10.1021/bi0476634
*cite journal | author=Lu X, Nannenga B, Donehower LA |title=PPM1D dephosphorylates Chk1 and p53 and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints. |journal=Genes Dev. |volume=19 |issue= 10 |pages= 1162–74 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15870257 |doi= 10.1101/gad.1291305
*cite journal | author=Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, "et al." |title=Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network. |journal=Nature |volume=437 |issue= 7062 |pages= 1173–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 16189514 |doi= 10.1038/nature04209
*cite journal | author=Rauta J, Alarmo EL, Kauraniemi P, "et al." |title=The serine-threonine protein phosphatase PPM1D is frequently activated through amplification in aggressive primary breast tumours. |journal=Breast Cancer Res. Treat. |volume=95 |issue= 3 |pages= 257–63 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16254685 |doi= 10.1007/s10549-005-9017-7
*cite journal | author=Fujimoto H, Onishi N, Kato N, "et al." |title=Regulation of the antioncogenic Chk2 kinase by the oncogenic Wip1 phosphatase. |journal=Cell Death Differ. |volume=13 |issue= 7 |pages= 1170–80 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16311512 |doi= 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401801
*cite journal | author=Mendrzyk F, Radlwimmer B, Joos S, "et al." |title=Genomic and protein expression profiling identifies CDK6 as novel independent prognostic marker in medulloblastoma. |journal=J. Clin. Oncol. |volume=23 |issue= 34 |pages= 8853–62 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16314645 |doi= 10.1200/JCO.2005.02.8589

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