Continuing resolution


Continuing resolution

A continuing resolution is a type of appropriations legislation used by the United States Congress to fund government agencies if a formal appropriations bill has not been signed into law by the end of the Congressional fiscal year. The legislation takes the form of a joint resolution, and provides funding for existing federal programs at current or reduced levels.

Contents

Federal budget procedure

The federal government of the United States operates on a budget calendar that runs from October 1 through September 30. Each year, the Congress authorizes each department, agency, or program to spend a specific amount of money, and the President signs the bill into law. This money may not be spent, however, until it has been appropriated for a given purpose. The Department of Justice, for example, is authorized to spend $22.2 billion each year, but may not do so until Congress passes a law that says so. [1]

Because of this system, Congress is required to pass separate spending bills every year to ensure the operation of government. If Congress fails to pass such a bill, or the President fails to sign it into law, non-essential functions of the government will cease, as they are no longer allowed by law to spend money. In order to prevent the interruption of government services, Congress will often pass a continuing resolution. This authorizes government agencies to fund their agencies at the current level until either the resolution expires, or an appropriations bill is passed. A continuing resolution must be passed by both houses of Congress and signed into law by the President.

Advantages and disadvantages

Standoffs between the President and Congress or between political parties, elections, and more urgent legislative matters complicate the budget process, frequently making the continuing resolution a common occurrence in American government.[citation needed] They allow the government to take its time making difficult fiscal decisions.

Federal agencies, including the military, are disrupted by the periods of reduced funding. With non-essential operations suspended, many agencies are forced to interrupt research projects, training programs, or other important functions. Its impact on day-to-day management can be severe, costing some employees the equivalent of several months' time to focus on increased bureaucratic haggling and paperwork.[citation needed]

Continuing resolutions in history

The most significant incident involving continuing resolutions occurred in 1995, when a standoff between then Democratic President Bill Clinton and Congressional Republicans led to the shutdown of the federal government.[2] Without enough votes to override President Clinton's veto, Newt Gingrich led the Republicans not to submit a revised budget, allowing the previously-approved appropriations to expire on schedule, and causing parts of the Federal government to shut down for lack of funds. Negotiations between parties deteriorated into name-calling in the Capitol, snubbing any attempts at compromise.[3] The shutdown backfired on the Republican leadership, and is attributed with helping Clinton win re-election in 1996.

List of continuing resolutions for the U.S. federal budget

2001 U.S. federal budget

2002 U.S. federal budget

2003 U.S. federal budget

2007 U.S. federal budget

  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (1st): Division B of Pub.L. 109-289
  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (2nd): Pub.L. 109-369
  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (3rd): Pub.L. 109-383
  • Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007: Pub.L. 110-5

2008 U.S. federal budget

2009 U.S. federal budget

  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2009 (1st): Division A of Pub.L. 110-329
  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2009 (2nd): Pub.L. 111-6

2010 U.S. federal budget

  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010 (1st): Division B of Pub.L. 111-68
  • Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010 (2nd): Division B of Pub.L. 111-88

2011 U.S. federal budget

Beginning in September 2010, Congress passed a series of continuing resolutions to fund the government.[4]

  • 1st Continuing Resolution, funding from October 1, 2010 through December 3, 2010, passed on September 29, 2010. (Pub.L. 111-242)
  • 2nd Continuing Resolution, funding through December 18, 2010, passed on December 2, 2010. (Pub.L. 111-290)[5]
  • 3rd Continuing Resolution, funding through December 21, 2010, passed on December 17, 2010. (Pub.L. 111-317)
  • 4th Continuing Resolution, funding through March 4, 2011, passed on December 21, 2010. (Pub.L. 111-322)[6]
  • 5th Continuing Resolution ("Further Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011"), funding through March 18, 2011, passed on March 2, 2011. (Pub.L. 112-4) This resolution cut $4 billion from 2010 spending levels.[7]
  • 6th Continuing Resolution ("Additional Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011"), funding through April 8, 2011, passed on March 16, 2011. (Pub.L. 112-6) This resolution cut an additional $6 billion from 2010 spending levels.[8]
  • 7th Continuing Resolution ("Further Additional Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011"), funding through April 15, 2011, passed on April 9, 2011. (Pub.L. 112-8) This continuing resolution followed a deal on the full annual budget which was made with just hours remaining before a government shutdown.[9] It itself contains an additional $2 billion in cuts.[10] Democrats had previously rejected a Republican-backed resolution passed by the House before the deal, which would have funded the government for another week and cut an additional $12 billion from 2010 levels.[11]

References

  1. ^ "What is a Continuing Resolution?". ThisNation.com. http://www.thisnation.com/question/003.html. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  2. ^ "Government shutdown looms". CNN. 1995-11-11. http://www.cnn.com/US/9511/debt_limit/11-11/shutdown_pm/index.html. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  3. ^ "Democrats taunt GOP with diapered Newt". CNN. 1995-11-16. http://www.cnn.com/US/9511/debt_limit/11-16/gingrich_pm/index.html. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  4. ^ "Status of Appropriations Legislation for Fiscal Year 2011". THOMAS. Library of Congress. April 5, 2011. http://thomas.loc.gov/home/approp/app11.html. Retrieved April 5, 2011. 
  5. ^ "http://www.usgs.gov/budget/whats_new.asp". http://www.usgs.gov/budget/whats_new.asp. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Committee on Appropriations". Appropriations.house.gov. http://appropriations.house.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.Detail&PressRelease_id=246. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  7. ^ Murray, Shailagh; Sonmez, Felicia; Montgomery, Lori (March 2, 2011). "Obama signs short-term spending bill, averting federal shutdown". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/02/AR2011030203449.html. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  8. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (18 March 2011). "House Votes to End Money for NPR, and Senate Passes Spending Bill". The New York Times: p. A20. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/us/politics/18congress.html. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  9. ^ Shear, Michael D. (9 April 2011). "Deal at Last Minute Averts Shutdown; Nearly $40 Billion in Cuts Are Outlined". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/09/us/politics/09fiscal.html. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  10. ^ Silverleib, Alan; Cohen, Tom (8 April 2011). "Democrats, Republicans agree on a budget deal". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2011/POLITICS/04/08/congress.budget/. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  11. ^ Hulse, Carl (8 April 2011). "No Accord in Budget Talks as Policy Fights Hamper Deal". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/08/us/politics/08congress.html. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • continuing resolution — U.S. Politics. legislation enacted by Congress to allow government operations to continue until the regular appropriations are enacted: used when action on appropriations is not completed by the beginning of a fiscal year. * * * …   Universalium

  • continuing resolution — U.S. Politics. legislation enacted by Congress to allow government operations to continue until the regular appropriations are enacted: used when action on appropriations is not completed by the beginning of a fiscal year …   Useful english dictionary

  • Continuing legal education in the Philippines — See also, Continuing legal education Continuing legal education is required of members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) to ensure that throughout their career, they keep abreast with law and jurisprudence, maintain the ethics of the …   Wikipedia

  • Joint resolution — In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the President for his approval or disapproval, in exactly the same case as a Bill. There is no legal …   Wikipedia

  • Iraq Resolution — and Iraq War Resolution are popular names for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, [http://www.c span.org/resources/pdf/hjres114.pdf Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002]… …   Wikipedia

  • Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe - Resolution 1549 (2007) Functioning of democratic institutions in Ukraine — The information below is a copy of the relevant report and resolution passed by The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europeon April 192007 concerning the Ukrainian Political Crisisand Decrees of The President, Viktor Yushchenko dismissing …   Wikipedia

  • Conflict resolution research — Conflict resolution is any reduction in the severity of a conflict. It may involve conflict management, in which the parties continue the conflict but adopt less extreme tactics; settlement, in which they reach agreement on enough issues that the …   Wikipedia

  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 — (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. It was adopted under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter. [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/db942872b9eae454852560f6005… …   Wikipedia

  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 — is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolution 660, Resolution 661 …   Wikipedia

  • Columbia University's School of Continuing Education — Columbia University School of Continuing Education School type Private Dean Kristine Billmyer Location New York, New York, USA Ho …   Wikipedia


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.