Tu'i Kanokupolu

Tu'i Kanokupolu

In Tonga, the Tuokinai Kanokupolu is a title held by the chief of the House of Tupou, currently the Royal House of Tonga. Kanokupolu is the name of a village in Hihifo district, which probably was Ngata's residence when he was still a governor under his father Mookinaunga okinao Tonga of the Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua dynasty.

#Ngata - started off as governor of Hihifo on behalf of his father the Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua Mookinaunga okinao Tonga, around 1600
#Atamataokinaila - expanded kinships into central Tongatapu, and as such increased the power of his house
#Mataeletuokinaapiko - the first one to be officially called Tuokinai Kanokupolu; by now the line was strong enough that he could marry an eldest sister or daughter of the Tuokinai Tonga.
#Mataelehaokinaamea - around 1650, fought a war with the Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua Vaea, which apparently established the Tuokinai Kanokupolu dynasty as the more powerful one by now. The Tuokinai Tonga quickly reacted, and both Tuokinaipulotu I and Fakanaokinaanaokinaa married a daughter of his, Halaevalu and Tongotea respectively, severing ties with the Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua. Tongotea in this way became the first moheofo, the royal concubine, from which the Tuokinai Kanokupolu got (one of) its alternative names: Haokinaamoheofo.
#Vuna - brother of Mataelehaokinaamea; had tried, in vain, to establish his own dynasty on Vavaokinau, but was thwarted by his nephew Tuituiohu who wanted to do the same
#Maokinaafuokinaotuokinaitonga - son of Mataelehaokinaamea; his brother Tuituiohu started his own dynasty in Vavaokinau, the Haokinaa Ngatatupu, and was the father of Fīnau okinaUlukālala I
#Tupoulahi - son of Maokinaafuokinaotuokinaitonga
#Maealiuaki - brother of Tupoulahi; retired at old age and possibly became Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua; died shortly after Captain James Cook's visit of 1777
#Tuokinaihalafatai - son of Tupoulahi; appeared to exercise the powers of the Tuokinai Kanokupolu when met by Captain Cook in 1777 (who called him Fīnau), but seems never to have been officially installed. Renounced the honour and went to Fiji in 1782.
#Tupoulahisiokinai - like his father seems never to have been officially installed. Still his name appears on later succession lists as being the Tuokinai Kanokupolu from 1782 to 1789.
#Mulikihaokinaamea - son of Maealiuaki, was only in the office for a few years when driven out by his niece; may have become Tuokinai Haokinaatakalaua after that; died in batlle in 1799.
#Tupoumoheofo - daughter of Tupoulahi and principal wife of the Tuokinai Tonga Paulaho. It is not known how she, a woman, was able to seize such a title exclusively in the realm of men. Her cousin Tukuokinaaho was very angry when he heard about it, he came back from his residence on okinaEua and cursed in her face: "pali fie ule" (vagina wanting to be penis). She did not enjoy the job for long, he defeated her the same year, probably 1793.
#Mumui - younger half-brother of Tupoulahi and Maealiuaki, father of Tukuokinaaho. Took over the Tuokinai Kanokupolu title after Tupoumoheofo was forced out. He was already an old man and died in 1797.
#Tukuokinaaho - saw his ambitions fulfilled when he got the title in 1797. But he had enemies in his own family after his fight against Tupoumoheofo, and his cruelty made him no friends elsewhere too; was murdered in April 1799. This conspiracy started the long Tongan civil war in which William Mariner (writer) was for years an observer and unwilling participant.
#Maokinaafuokinaolimuloa was pushed by the Haokinaa Havea (a chiefly branch belonging to the dynasty of the Tuokinai Kanokupolu), and was bestowed with the title in July or October 1799, if not still later — and was murdered the same night by the Haokinaa Ngata (another, senior chiefly branch), who had supported Tukuokinaaho.
#Tupoumālohi - was appointed after a long interregnum in 1808, when finally the quarreling chiefs put their differences aside to forestall the ambitions of Tupoutookinaa. But Tupoumālohi was weak, not able to withstand the quarreling chiefs, resigned a year later, and went to Haokinaapai. Remained with his title, however, until his death in 1812 on the official list.
#Tupoutookinaa - son of Tukuokinaaho, but associated with his assassins; claimed himself to be the Tuokinai Kanokupolu, however, was not officially recognised; but then also not officially denounced; the chiefs of Tongatapu were too much involved in warlords like fightings with each other to bother about an usurpator without any serious rank. One of the most powerful chiefs, Takai, accepted him in 1813. But that was only one, and when Tupoutookinaa died in 1820 neither the Haokinaa Ngata nor the Haokinaa Havea had acknowledged him yet, and no one did care.
#Aleamotuokinaa - brother of Tukuokinaaho; was already an old man when appointed in 1827, and not interested in war and politics. Probably the only reason that the quarreling chiefs took him and terminated the interregnum was to forestall Tāufaokinaāhau's claim on the title. Likewise the last Tuokinai Tonga was installed at the same time. Aleamotuokinaa became Christian. He died in 1845.
#Tāufaokinaāhau - son of Tupoutookinaa; had wanted the title much earlier, but like his father, was considered by the high chiefs of too low rank to be a serious contender. But by 1845 he had conquered whole Tonga and he could take the Tuokinai Kanokupolu title or any title if he wanted. And since he had proclaimed himself since 1831 to be King George Tupou I, it did not really matter anymore. He did take the title, only for the form. Although the title of the Tuokinai Kanokupolu lives on as one of the most important titles in the current dynasty of Tupou, it is no longer an entity on itself, and the numbering of the following holders is only pro forma.
#Siaosi Tupou II
#Sālote Tupou III
#Tāufaokinaāhau Tupou IV
#Siaosi Tupou V


* I.C. Campbell; Classical Tongan kingship; 1989
* E. Bott; Tonga society at the time of Captain Cook's visit; 1982

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