- Cao Shuang
Cao Shuang (died 249) was the son of
Cao Zhen, a famous commander of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdomsperiod. He initially held great power in the kingdom of Wei as the Grand Commander but later, he lost his power to Sima Yiand was executed on charges of treason.
Around the new year of 239, when
Cao Ruigrew ill, he resolved to pass the throne to Cao Fang. He initially wanted to entrust Cao Fang to his uncle Cao Yu (曹宇), to serve as the lead regent, along with Xiahou Xian (夏侯獻), Cao Shuang, Cao Zhao (曹肇), and Qin Lang (秦朗). However, his trusted officials Liu Fang (劉放) and Sun Zi (孫資) were unfriendly with Xiahou and Cao Zhao and were apprehensive about their becoming regents, and managed to persuade him to make Cao Shuang (with whom they were friendly) and Sima Yi (who was then with his troops at Ji (汲縣, in modern Xinxiang, Henan) regents instead. Cao Yu, Cao Zhao, and Qin Lang were excluded from the regency. As a result, Cao Shuang rose to power. However, Cao Shuang was clearly inadequate for the important job assigned to him. When Cao Ruiasked him if could do it, Cao Shuang was so nervous that he could not even say a word to answer and finally, it was Sima Yi answered for him, promising Cao Rui that they would do their best and Cao Rui would have nothing to worry about.
Despite his inability, Cao Shuang and his brothers,
Cao Xiand Cao Xunwielded great power in the Kingdom of Wei, and he was often at conflict with Sima Yi, who had greater influence and support. In 243, Sima Yi's position further strengthened by another successful deployment: Zhuge Keof Eastern Wuwas constantly sending agents to Shouchunto prepare an invasion, so Sima Yiled Cao Weiforces to Shu county (舒县) of Lujiang Shire (庐江郡), near the border. Hearing the news, Sun Quanimmediately ordered Zhuge Keto withdraw to Chaisang County (柴桑县) Yuzhang Shire (豫章郡). Sima Yi's popularity and influence instantly multiplied as he was cheered as being able to scare away the enemy numbering over a hundred thousand without a fight and thus secured the border and saved the city from certain attack. Alarmed, Cao Shuang used his greater authority than Sima Yi, to persuade the emperor, Cao Fang, as a reward, to promote Sima Yi to the rank of Grand Tutor (太傅), which actually meant that Sima was in an honorary position and was left without any real authority in military affairs.
Cao Shuang was desperate for a victory to boost his own fame, and he selected
Shu Hanas his target. Leading an army numbering more than fourteen hundred thousand, Cao Shuang invaded Shu Han in March, 244. However, two months later, he was soundly defeated by Wang Pingand Fei Yiin the Battle of Xingshi, and was barely able to escape back to Guanzhongwith his own life. The most devastating result, however, was that Cao Shuang lost more than twelve hundred thousand troops, or fifteen percent of the total armed troops of Cao Wei's eight hundred thousand army, a serious blow that could not be recovered. Furthermore, most of the lost troops were the crack units of Cao Wei. Cao Shuang's popularity and influence was dropped to a new low as his military defeat, while in the same time, Sima Yi's popularity and influence further increased for his opposition to the campaign from the start. To fool Cao Shuang into letting down his guard, Sima Yi stopped any political activities in May. 247 and later retired, and he would go further to pretend to be ill and senile. In the winter of 248, Cao Shuang's protege Li Sheng was named as the administrator of Jingzhou, and before he left for his position, Cao Shuang sent Li Sheng to check on Sima Yi. Cao Shuang and his followers overjoyed when Li reported that Sima Yi was indeed ill and dying, that he could not even hear clearly what he said.
Cao Shuang sensed that Sima Yi no longer posed a threat to him and drew his attention away from Sima. On
January 6, 249, Cao Shuang and his brothers left the capital city to accompany the child emperor Cao Fangto pay respect to Cao Ruiat his resting place at Gaoping Tomb (高平陵), and they continued to stay out on a hunting expedition. Sima Yi and his sons launched a coup d'etat and seized control of the capital city by first closing all the city gates. Sima then assigned his proteges to takeover the positions held by Cao Shuang's brothers after taking the armory: Excellency over the Masses (司徒) Gao Roureplaced Cao Shuang, and Imperial Herdsman (太仆) Wang Guan (王观) replaced Cao Xito command the imperial bodyguards. Sima Yi went to see the Empress Dowager, requesting her to give an order to arrest Cao Shuang and his brothers on charges of treason. Huan Fan, an advisor of Cao Shuang, escaped with the seal signifying the power of Grand Commander and brought it to Cao Shuang. Cao Shuang was in a dilemma, unsure whether to surrender his power or not. Cao Shuang's family and loved ones were in Sima Yi's control, and Sima Yi promised that Cao Shuang would not be harmed, as Sima was only after Cao's power. Eventually, Cao Shuang agreed to surrender and give up his power. On January 10, 249, Cao Shuang returned to Luoyang, the capital of Cao Wei and his fate was sealed. Once having gained power, Sima Yi had Cao Shuang and his brothers arrested on charges of treason, then had them executed. Sima Yi refused to take the position of Imperial Chancellorawarded to him, and remained as Grand Tutor (太傅).
Personages of the Three Kingdoms
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Cao Shuang — (chinesisch 曹爽 Cáo Shuǎng, W. G. Ts ao Shuang; Zì 昭伯 Zhāobó, W. G. Zhāo po; † 249) war von 239 bis 249 Regent des dritten Wei Kaisers Cao Fang. Geboren wohl gegen Ende des 2. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. als Sohn von Cao Zhen, wurde er im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Shuang — était le fils aîné de Cao Zhen. Juste avant la mort de Cao Rui, il est nommé par ce dernier Régent Maréchal titre qu’il partage avec Sima Yi et administrateur de la Cour impériale des Wei. Après la mort de Cao Rui, il s’empare du pouvoir… … Wikipédia en Français
Cao Fang — (chinesisch 曹芳 Cáo Fāng, W. G. Ts ao Fang; Zì 蘭卿 Lánqīng, W. G. Lan ch ing; Postum 齊王 Qí Wáng, W. G. Ch i Wang ‚Prinz von Qi‘ und 邵陵厲公 Shàolíng Lì Gōng, W. G. Shao ling Li Kung ‚Herzog Li von Shaoling‘; (* 231; † 274) war … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Xi — Cáo Xī, (chinesisch 曹羲 Cáo Xī, W. G. Ts ao Hsi; † 249) war der zweite Sohn des Wei Generals Cao Zhen und der jüngere Bruder von Cao Shuang. Cao Xi riet seinem anmaßenden älteren Bruder oftmals, sich vor Sima Yi in Acht zu nehmen, der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Huan — Cao Huang (chin. 曹璜, Caó Huáng), später Cao Huan (chin. 曹奐, Cáo Hùan, W. G. Ts ao Huan; * 246; † 303) war ein Enkel Cao Caos und herrschte als fünfter und letzter Kaiser der Wei Dynastie unter dem Namen Kaiser Yuan von Wei (chin. 魏元帝, Wèi Yúandì … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Mao — Emperor of Cao Wei Born 241 Died 260 (aged 19) Predecessor Cao Fang Successor Cao Huan … Wikipedia
CAO — bezeichnet: einen alten chinesischen Staat, siehe Cao (Staat) CaO, die chemische Formel für Calciumoxid Cao ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Cao Ang (175–197), chinesischer General Cao Anmin († 197), General unter Cao Cao Cao Bao († 194) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Mao — (chinesisch 曹髦 Cáo Máo, W. G. Ts ao Mao; Zì 彥士 Yànshì, W. G. Yen shih; * 241; † 260) war der Enkel von Cao Pi und der vierte Kaiser der Wei Dynastie. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Familiärer Hintergrund und Aufstieg zum Thron … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Zhen — Cáo Zhēn, 曹真, * 185; † 231), Großjährigkeitsname Zidan (子丹) war ein General unter Cao Cao und seinen Nachfolgern, den Kaisern der Wei während der Östlichen Han Dynastie und der Zeit der Drei Reiche. Leben Nach der Geschichte der Drei Reiche war… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cao Xi — est le second fils de Cao Zhen et le jeune frère de Cao Shuang. Après que son frère aîné saisit le pouvoir militaire des mains de Sima Yi, il est promu au titre de commandant de l’Armée centrale. Il tente en vain de prévenir Cao Shuang d’être sur … Wikipédia en Français