List of oxidation states of the elements


List of oxidation states of the elements

This is a list of all the known oxidation states of the chemical elements, excluding nonintegral values. The more common oxidation states are highlighted. This table is based on Greenwood's, [Greenwood&Earnshaw, p. 28.] with all additions noted. Oxidation state 0, which is found for all elements, is implied by the column with the element's symbol. The format of the table, based on one devised by Mendeleev in 1889, highlights some of the periodic trends.

A figure with a similar format (shown below) was used by Irving Langmuir in 1919 in one of the early papers about the octet rule. [Irving Langmuir. The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules. "J. Am. Chem. Soc." 1919, "41", 868-934. doi|10.1021/ja02227a002] The periodicity of the oxidation states was one of the pieces of evidence that lead Langmuir to adopt the rule.

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