SMART Recovery

SMART Recovery

SMART Recovery (Self Management and Recovery Training) is an international non-profit organization which provides assistance to individuals seeking abstinence from addictive behaviors. The approach used is secular and science-based using non-confrontational motivational, behavioral and cognitive methods. [cite news | title=Religiosity and Participation in Self-Help Groups | date=2007-10-17 | publisher=The Walsh Group | url = | | accessdate = 2007-12-11] Substance/activity dependence is viewed by the organization as a dysfunctional habit (rather than a disease), while allowing that it is possible that certain people have a predisposition towards addictive behavior. [cite journal|title=Smart Recovery: Addiction Recovery Support from a Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective|journal=Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy|year=2000 |month=October |first=AT |last=Horvath |volume=18 |issue=3 |pages=181–191|doi=10.1023/A:1007831005098]


The program uses principles found in Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), [Citation| first=W.R. | last=Miller| coauthors=et al| contribution=Motivational Enhancement Therapy Manual: A Clinical Research Guide for Therapists Treating Individuals With Alcohol Abuse and Dependence.| title=Project MATCH Monograph Series| publisher=National Institute of Health | year=1995] and techniques taken from Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), particularly in the version called Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), as well as scientifically validated research on treatment. [cite book | last = Hester & Miller | title = Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives | publisher = Allyn and Bacon | year = 2002 | location = University of Michigan | isbn = 0205360645 ]

The organization's program emphasizes four areas (called the Four Points) in the process of Recovery: Building Motivation, Coping with Urges, Problem Solving, and Lifestyle Balance. [cite book | last = Shaw | first = BR | authorlink = | coauthors = et al | title = Addiction & Recovery for Dummies | publisher = Wiley Publishing | year = 2005 | pages = 176-177 |isbn = 0764576259] The "SMART Toolbox" is a collection of various MET, CBT and REBT methods (or "tools") which address the Four Points. [cite journal |title=Comparing treatments for dual diagnosis: Twelve-Step and Self Management and Recovery Training |journal=American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse |year=2003 |first=A.J. |last=Brooks |coauthors=Penn, P. E. |volume=29 |issue=2 |pages=359–383 |doi=10.1081/ADA-120020519]

The program does not use the twelve-steps which make up the basis of the various "Anonymous" self-help groups (e.g. AA, NA, etc.) and is generally listed as an "Alternative to AA" or an "Alternative to the Twelve-Steps." [cite journal|title=Models of alcoholism used in treatment: Contrasting A.A. and other perspectives with which it is often confused |journal=Journal of Studies on Alcohol |year=1994 |first=W. R. |last=Miller |coauthors=Kurtz, E. |volume=55 |pages=159–166 ] [cite book | last = Volpicelli | first = Joseph | coauthors = Maia Szalavitz | title = Recovery Options: The Complete Guide | publisher = Wiley Publishing | year = 2000 | pages = 149-151 | isbn = 047134575X ] [cite news | title=SMART Alternative Self-Help Groups Tackle Substance Abuse | publisher=Robert Wood Johnson Foundation | url = | accessdate = 2007-12-12] Though listed as an "alternative" more than half of those attending meetings report using it as a supplement to their 12-Step Fellowship involvement and so it is noted to be a "supplement" as well in SMART Recovery's main program publication, The SMART Recovery Handbook. [cite book | last = Steinberger | first = H. | title = SMART Recovery Handbook | publisher = Alcohol & Drug Abuse Self-Help Network,Inc.| year = 2004 | location = Mentor Ohio | pages = Section 1/Page4 | isbn = 0-615-13135-2 ]

History and Organization

Incorporated in 1992 as the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Self-Help Network (ADASHN), the organization began operating under the SMART Recovery name in 1994. [cite web |url= |title=Addiction Alternatives for Recovery |accessdate=2007-12-12 |last=Lemanski |first=Michael J. |year=2000 |work=The Humanist |publisher=University of Michigan Health System] [cite book | last = Humphreys | first = Keith | title = Circles of Recovery: Self-help Organizations for Addictions | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 2003 | pages = 82-86 | isbn = 0521792770 ]

General operations are overseen by a volunteer Board of Directors [cite web |url= |title=Board of Directors 2007 |accessdate=2007-12-12|format=PDF] with review from an International Advisory Council of experts. [cite web |url= |title=International Advisory Council 2007 |accessdate=2007-12-12|format=PDF] Local groups are run by volunteers known as "Facilitators" with the assistance of volunteer recovery professionals called "Volunteer Advisors." A central office is currently maintained in Mentor, Ohio


The meetings are free for all wishing to attend, and are intended to be informational as well as supportive. [cite book | last = Shaw | first = BR | coauthors = et al | title = Addiction & Recovery for Dummies | publisher = Wiley Publishing | year = 2005 | location = | pages = 176-177 | isbn = 0764576259] Approximately 365 weekly group meetings led by volunteer facilitators are held worldwide [cite web | title=Source SMART Central office. This includes international groups in 7 countries. | url = | accessdate = 2007-12-12 ] . In addition, the organization provides online resources and support to the volunteers and those attending the groups and one or more daily online meetings. [cite web |url= |title=Online Meeting Schedule |accessdate=2007-12-12]

Meetings are also held in correctional facilities in many states including: Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. [cite web|url= |title=Source - SMART Central Office |accessdate=2007-12-12]


SMART is recognized by the American Academy of Family Physicians, [cite journal |title=Substance Abuse--How To Recognize It |journal=American Family Physician |date=2003-04-01 |volume=67 |issue=7 |url= |accessdate=2007-12-12] as well as the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) [cite news |title=Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide | publisher=National Institute on Drug Abuse | url = | accessdate = 2007-12-12] and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). [cite web |url= |title=Alcohol and Drug Information |accessdate=2007-12-12 |publisher=US Dept of Health and Human Services ] NIDA and NIAAA are agencies of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

ee also

*Addiction recovery groups
*Cognitive Behavior Therapy
*Drug addiction
*LifeRing Secular Recovery
*Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
*Rational Recovery


Further reading

*Brown JM. (1998) "Self-Regulation and the Addictive Behaviors." in Treating Addictive Behaviors, 2nd ed. Miller WR & Heather N. eds. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0306458527
*Ellis A. & Velten E. (1992) "Rational Steps To Quitting Alcohol: When AA Doesn't Work For You." Barricade Books, NY. ISBN 0942637534
*Gerstein J. (1998) "Rational Recovery, SMART Recovery and non-twelve step recovery programs." In Principles Of Addiction Medicine, 2nd ed. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase ISBN 1880425084
*Mattson ME. (1998) "Finding the Right Approach." in Miller WR & Heather N. Treating Addictive Behaviors. 2nd ed. Plenum Press, NY. ISBN 0306458527
*Myers PL. (2002) "Beware of the Man of One Book: Processing Ideology in Addictions Education." J of Teaching in the Addictions. pp 1:69-90
*Vuchinich RE & Tucker JA. (1998) "Choice, Behavioral Economics, and Addictive Behavior Patterns." in Treating Addictive Behaviors ISBN 0306458527
*Whittinghill D., et al. "The benefits of a self-efficacy approach to substance abuse counseling in the era of managed care." J Addictions & Offender Counseling. 2000; 20:64-74

External links

* [ SMART Recovery Website]
* [ SMART Recovery Canada]
* [ SMART Recovery UK]
* [ SMART Recovery Australia]
* [ SMART Recovery NYC (New York City)]

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