Exemplar


Exemplar

:"Exemplars" directs here. For the superpowered comic book team, see Exemplars (comics)."Exemplar, in the sense developed by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn, is a well known usage of a scientific theory.

According to Kuhn, scientific practice alternates between periods of normal science and extraordinary/revolutionary science. During periods of normalcy, scientists tend to subscribe to a large body of interconnecting knowledge, methods, and assumptions which make up the reigning paradigm (see paradigm shift for more information on Kuhn's model). Normal science presents a series of "puzzles" that are solved as scientists explore their field. The solution to some of these puzzles become well known and are the exemplars of the field.

Kuhn introduced the concept of exemplar in a postscript to the second edition of "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" (1970). He noted that: [b] ecause the term [paradigm] has assumed a life of its own ... I shall here substitute ‘exemplars.’ By it I mean, initially, the concrete problem-solutions that students encounter from the start of their scientific education, whether in laboratories, on examinations, or at the ends of chapters in science texts. ... All physicists, for example, begin by learning the same exemplars: problems such as the inclined plane, the conical pendulum, and Keplerian orbits; instruments such as the vernier, the calorimeter, and the Wheatstone bridge.

Those who study a scientific discipline are expected to know its exemplars. There is no fixed set of exemplars, but for a physicist today it would certainly include such things as the harmonic oscillator from mechanics and the hydrogen atom from quantum mechanics. For a biologist today the set includes the population variations of the European peppered moth ("Biston betularia") and the convergent evolution of wings. They should also be familiar with ideas which have been discredited or otherwise proven false.

ee also

*Paradigm
*Paradigm shift
*Scientific consensus
*Theories and sociology of the history of science

References

*cite book | author=Thomas S. Kuhn | title=The Structure of Scientific Revolutions | publisher= (2nd edn.) University of Chicago Press | year=1970 | id=ISBN 0-226-45804-0


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  • Exemplar — Exemplar …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • exemplar — |z| v. tr. 1.  [Antigo] Dar exemplo de. 2.  [Antigo] Mostrar com ostentação. 3.  [Brasil] Castigar como exemplo para outros.   ‣ Etimologia: latin exemplo, are exemplar |z| adj. 2 g. 1. Que pode ser usado como exemplo ou modelo; que é digno de… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Exemplar — Ex*em plar, n. [L. exemplar, exemplum: cf. F. exemplaire. See {Example}, and cf. {Examper}, {Sampler}.] 1. A model, original, or pattern, to be copied or imitated; a specimen; sometimes; an ideal model or type, as that which an artist conceives.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • exemplar — I noun apotheosis, archetype, example, exemplum, exponent, frame of reference, good example, guide, ideal, model, nonesuch, nonpareil, paradigm, paragon, pattern, prototype, shining example, standard, standard for comparison, standard for… …   Law dictionary

  • Exemplar — Ex*em plar, a. Exemplary. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] The exemplar piety of the father of a family. Jer. Taylor. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Exemplar — (v. lat.), 1) Muster; 2) ein Einzelnes von einer Anzahl gleichartiger u. in gleichem Werthe stehender Dinge, die zum Verkauf gebracht werden, so namentlich Bücher, Kupferstiche etc. Exemplarisch, 1) was zum Muster dienen kann; 2) warnend,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Exemplar — Exemplar, Muster, Vorbild; einzelner Abdruck eines Buches, Kupferstiches; einzelnes Stück einer Sammlung; exemplarisch, musterhaft; auch zum abschreckenden Beispiel dienend (z. B. exemplarische Strafe); Exemplarität, Musterhaftigkeit …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Exemplar — Exemplār, (lat.), Muster, Vorbild, einzelner Abdruck (von Büchern, Kupferstichen); exemplārisch, musterhaft; auch zum abschreckenden Beispiel dienend …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Exemplar — Exemplar, lat., einzelnes Stück (von Büchern, Stichen etc.) …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • exemplar — late 14c., original model of the universe in the mind of God, later (mid 15c.) model of virtue, from O.Fr. exemplaire (14c.) and directly from L.L. exemplarium, from L. exemplum (see EXAMPLE (Cf. example)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • exemplar — pattern, ideal, beau ideal, example, *model, mirror, standard Analogous words: apotheosis, *paragon, nonpareil, nonesuch: type, *symbol …   New Dictionary of Synonyms


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